Lower Mustang 下幕斯唐 1-Jomsom, Thini, Marpha

Mustang – The hidden Tibetan kingdom / 喜馬拉雅山上珍寶般的西藏王國

In short, Mustang is a tibetan kingdom hidden in Himalayas in Nepal, with well-preserved culture and custom. The main reason is probably the fact that transportation is very limited – no road for vehicles (except for gigantic tractors may traverse rivers in spring time) so you either walk or ride horses, plus it’s restricted to foreigners so foreign tourists are subject to application and a $50/day charge.It’s mostly around 3000-4000m above sea level. Great mountain views but quite arid (not as dry as Ladakh though) and extremely windy in the afternoon. August-September is the best season to travel to the region though I quite enjoyed my June-July tour when people were busy in the field and hardly any other tourists around.Mustang maintains their distinctive culture, i.e. part of the Tibetan culture but with unique local style in language, clothes etc. All Lobas (Mustang people) are Buddhism. Because one religious king Ama Pal invited Ngorchen Kunga Sampo to teach three times in the region, most of the monasteries in the region belong to the Ngor subschool of Sakyapa tradition. It’s said that Padmasambhava was also here before heading to Tibet so there are also several holy sites of Guru Rinpoche. Mustang is also the place where the 17th Karmapa passed by when he was on his way fleeing to India. 幕斯唐在尼泊爾境內略爲偏西的北部,與西藏接壤,是藏族衆多王國中的一個,其實王國名叫“Lo”,首都是Lo Manthang,1793年一個英國人第一次去那裏 ,英文就幾經訛傳最後變成“幕斯唐”。幕斯唐分爲“上幕斯唐”與“下幕斯唐”兩部分。Lo王國當年勢力强大時曾經據有西藏西部的廣大範圍,後來變小,到今日主要是在上幕斯唐的部分。下幕斯唐的主要城市是Jomsom,可從Pokara飛到,不過大部分來此的老外游客是徒步走有名的Annapurna Trek 過來。上幕斯唐是藏族文化保存極好的地方,因爲處於敏感地帶,屬于限制區域,外國人要進入一天要交50美金(09年之前是70美金一天),而且必須是至少兩人以上的旅行團體才能申請。這裏交通不便,上幕斯唐只能徒步、騎馬、或是包直升機進入,不過景觀特別,而且藏族文化風俗保存良好,曾經與位在印度境內的拉達克王國的關係密切(聯姻等等的),許多文化深受拉達克的影響。這裏的藏族說的是自己的方言,服飾也和中藏略微不同,吃的倒是都差不多。由於藏傳佛教薩迦派諾巴支派的創始人諾千貢嘎桑波曾於13-14世紀3次應幕斯唐國王的邀請前來傳法,歷來幕斯唐國王都是虔誠的薩迦派信徒,因此這裏的寺廟大都是薩迦派,還有一個寺廟保存了當年諾千大堪布的法座,數百年來相傳至今,朝拜者駱繹不絕。由於相傳蓮花生大士入藏之前也曾來此,因此也有些寜瑪的寺廟與蓮師聖地;特別殊勝的是一個洞穴(Ranchun Cave Temple),據說是蓮花生曾閉關3年3個月又3天之處。此外,在2007年於薩迦派的尼阜寺附近發現了一些洞穴(Snow Leopard Cave),裏面有古老偏向印度風格的壁畫,壁畫主題中有非常特別的八十四成就者的畫像。當年十七世大寶法王去印度,也是取道此處。

Jomsom (2760m)

Jomsom is the first top to Mustang by air. The flight is highly recommended: 25 minutes between two snow capped peaks and the cost is less than 100 USD. The view is equally great no matter which side you sits as the plane is so small (2 seats per row) so it’s quite convenient to look at both ways.Jomsom(江森)是進幕斯唐的第一站。到Jomsom的飛機比加德滿都到Pokara的還小,只有兩排座位,很像東非搭的那個,往前可以看到兩個駕駛員的無門機艙。25分鐘的航程,穿越兩個雪山間,太壯觀了,不到100美金的機票真是太值了。
 090614 Jomsom 016 090614 Jomsom 017 090618 Jomsom 009 My first impression of Jomsom at 6am in the morning is that it’s so neat and reminds me of Disneyland and a pedestrian street in San Diego. The stone paved streets with horses to embarking on a long journey…it’s as if you step into a Western movie scene, except for that you can never miss the 8167m Dhaulagiri!Jomsom漂亮的像是Disney的布景街道。大塊石頭舖成的地面,兩旁低矮的兩層樓房子也是用石頭砌成,有些商店,門口掛的都是可愛的手寫招牌,街道整齊乾淨,偶爾有馬隊騾隊經過,完全沒有那種旅遊勝地的商業化氣氛,只有一個小鎮平實卻友善的氛圍。還有世界第七高峰的Dhaulagiri(道拉吉利峰) ,坐在旅館的餐廳就對望着,很是幸福。
090614 Jomsom 026 090618 Jomsom 002 090618 Jomsom 004 090618 Jomsom 008    在當地人家裏吃早餐,炸油墩(就是圓形中間劃上兩刀的油炸面餅)配上香到不行的洋葱煎蛋(完全忘了自己本來想吃素的~~這些人也真是的,等我吃了一口才跟我說這裏鶏蛋不算是素的。啊!!),當然還有好喝的奶茶。那家女主人肯定是做菜高手,一家四口人但是厨房裏整齊排列著三十多個鍋子;她女兒為中餐準備辣椒霑醬時,我跟在旁邊學習,其實不難,而且尼泊爾的辣椒醬好吃到我只要有看到就會加在所有的菜上。
090614 Jomsom 043 090614 Jomsom 069 090614 Jomsom 082

Jomsom雖然是幕斯唐地區唯一有機場的地方,但是市容不大,雖然大部分人信佛教,但是連個廟都沒有。鎮上原本有個放國王雕像的公園,現在被鎭民捐出來建寺廟,轉經的外牆已經好了,主殿才剛剛開始建。因爲是主要交通樞紐,走在路上可以看到零零落落的外國旅客,會來這裏的都是那種身材結實瘦削,一看就很能走的人;還有來自印度的朝聖者,因爲下幕斯唐的Muktinath是重要的印度教朝聖聖地,路上不時可看到一群著白衣、臉上彩繪、有時赤裸上身的“沙度”行者。

Jomsom到Kagbeni現在能通車,只要半個小時就能到,騎馬技術好的也是半個小時。Pokara大概海拔1000公尺,Jomsom和Kagbeni都是2800米左右。基本民生物資像是餅乾糖果、可樂、礦泉水、衛生紙、肥皂、洗衣粉、洗髪精、防曬乳……等等到處都買的到,但是Pokara的選擇明顯比較多。

Thini – Padmasambhava’s 5 body treasures 蓮花生大師五寳

In the village near Jomsom, on the other side of Kali Gandaki river is a monastery housed 5 treasures said to be left by Padmasambhava. The monastery was originally in Bon tradition but in the process to be converted into a Nyingma or Kagyu monastery. As of now, only the two main statues in the shrine hall are of Bon, all the rest fresco etc. are new according to Buddhism. The treasures are kept in a casket with keys held by 3 monks and can only be opened with the presence of the 3.Main 5 objects are: 1. a palm-size Padmasambhava statue which is said to bring great fortune to those seeing it; 2. a Padmasambhava wrathful statue; 3. a Yeshe Tsogyal statue; 4. his vest; 5. his shoe at the age of 14 (?). In addition, there are also his hair, a Vajra made by him out of meteorite (it’s said that the vajra was able to fly), a replica of the 1st wish fulfilling statue, a stone with finger traces as if were held in a fist said to be left by the Bon founder of the monastery and some other treasures.The monk can give a lot of details about history of each objects, but I can only catch some by very kind translation of TT Lama within very brief time in between intros. 090619 Jomsom 5 star hotel 008090619 Tini Padmasambhava 5 body treasures 008

在Jomsom往南不遠的河對岸的Thini村裏,有一間寺廟存有據說是蓮花生大士留下來的五個寶貝。原來是存放在附近另一個現已荒廢的寺廟,後來移到這間苯教的寺廟,不過他們正在逐漸轉變這間寺廟成爲佛教寺廟,所以現在除了中間兩尊主要塑像是苯教神祗外,其他壁畫等等都已經新繪成佛教的。寳貝放在一個層層包裹的木箱裏,鑰匙由三個和尚保管。

主要的五個代表蓮師“身”的寶貝:1、一隻手大小的蓮花生大師的塑像,據說見著吉祥滿願;2、一尊差不多大小的蓮師忿怒像;3、耶喜措嘉的塑像;4、蓮師的衣服,坎肩的那一部分;5、蓮師(大概是14歲)時所穿的一隻鞋子。另外箱子裏還有很多寶貝:蓮師的頭髮;一個金剛杵,據說是蓮師用隕石做成,本來會飛;一尊第一個蓮師像的複製品,說是一個西藏喇嘛做的,他把真的拿走帶去藏地,碰到很多障難,後來問卜打卦把正品帶回;一塊有像是握在手中的痕迹的石頭,是苯教創始人遺留下的……很多東西,記不全。保管的和尚每一件物品都有很多叙述,但是我只能在他介紹當中的空檔透過好心的喇嘛迅速翻譯,所以所知有限。頭幾個塑像看起來真的是很老很老的東西。

Marpha

Marpha (2670m) is about 1 hour away by foot in the sourth of Jomsom, right on the Annarpurna track. An alternative option is to take the local bus from the office opposite the Jomsom airport. It’s a small village by the mountain. The highlight is three monasteries and a retreat center built together, so harmoniously that I only realized they are actually different institutes when walking inside the compound. The people there are also very supporting to each other and even bring me to other monasteries when I get lost (this is something bound to happen to me at least once a day). I immediately like this small village because of this Rimey attitude in practice.  

瑪爾發在Jomsom南邊走路差不多一小時的地方,是安納普娜群山徒步路綫中的一個小村落。我去的時候日正當中,自然是懶得走,在Jomsom機場對面的車站搭上一班不知往哪里的車,開沒多久就到了。是個依山建起的小村子,很漂亮的是有三座小廟上下相傍在山腰,最上面建了一個華人的襌修中心,這幾個建築搭配的煞是好看,不往裏面走根本不會發現原來是不同機構,裏面的人也很好,你找不到路還會帶你往上走到別家廟裏,真的是實踐了不分宗派的精神。
090714 Marpha 001090714 Marpha 004 
I arrived right before the tourist season so the villagers were painting those houses facing the main street – again, in unisonal colors. This main street is full of guesthouses, restaurants, and small grocery shops, all targeted on tourists. When I started walking, I thought it’d be really nice if the transportation towards Upper Mustang can be improved so that their lives can also improve with growing tourism. Yet after passing all these similar businesses for tourists, I start wondering whether it’s the only way to develop economics in Himalayas as obviously what is preserved in upper mustang villages seems missing here.  

村子很小,主要就是一條街,因爲觀光業好賺吧,主街上幾乎家家戶戶不是民俗旅舍,就是餐廳或小賣店。我去的時候正好是旅遊季節要開始前,街上的各店家們還統一顔色刷起了門面。上幕斯唐的村子要是也能交通發達,觀光業可能也會改善他們的生活到跟這裏一樣,但是想到街道都要變成這樣商業化(像是麗江)又有點可惜,到時很多傳統的買賣、生活方式就會慢慢消失了吧。 

Click for more pictures on Jomsom 更多的照片點這裏http://cid-12c681d04f03de08.skydrive.live.com/embedphoto.aspx/Nepal%e5%b0%bc%e6%b3%8a%e5%b0%94/090614Jomsom016.jpg

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關於 bella.chao
a simple wandering being on less beaten tracks in samsara

2 Responses to Lower Mustang 下幕斯唐 1-Jomsom, Thini, Marpha

  1. Colleen says:

    没想到你去了慕斯唐,太羡慕了!

  2. garbologist says:

    我的室友(美國人),在Mustang與Lo Mantang 做田野……不過她決定不繼續念人類學了,想要念physical therapy,以幫助更多人。

    我是路人,但常常google到Bella的blog。實在太喜歡了。可以把它加進我的blog連結嗎?

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