MATHO/Mangtro (2):神諭Oracles

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拉達克兩大節慶之一就是藏曆1月10-15日的瑪透(藏文是芒拓)“拿讓”節。10-13日每天下午4:30左右護法神會附身在兩位僧人身上,人們可以問問題。14-15日則是全日活動,從早上10點開始跳金剛舞,然後下午神諭出現。
What brought me to Ladakh was the Nagrang Festival at Matho (Mangtro in Tibetan language) which involves two oracles with unique charisma. They are famous for their predictions and scolding/exposing people with impure thoughts among the assembly crowds.

拉達克還有其它兩所寺廟也有神諭,瑪透神諭的特色是神準和有個性,因此吸引了各地群眾,甚至回教、印度教徒和國際觀光客。兩尊護法的名號是“白紅榮贊”(Rongtsen Kar Mar),來自康區,因為追隨當地的一位大修行者多傑·巴桑(Dorje Palsang)而來到拉達克。由於多傑·巴桑的證量,虔誠的拉達克國王對他生起很大的信心,賜予大片土地。多傑·巴桑為了利益瑪透的人民,決定在此建立瑪透寺,兩尊榮贊也追隨他並音誓言守護其法教而一直在瑪透待下。(數年前,有一次榮贊對主法的仁波切發飆,我猜是紅榮贊吧,祂説現在的人不具信心,只是來看熱鬧,所以不想來了,還怪仁波切幹嘛把祂們召請來。後來薩迦法王和祿頂堪千仁波切寫信勸請榮贊記得其誓言,之後還是每年都來,這幾年還沒有再次發飆過~)
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The two orcales, Rongtsen Kar Mar, i.e. White Rongtsen and Red Rongtsen, came from the Kham area in Eastern Tibet. They followed a great practitioner named Dorje Palsang from Kham because of his high realization. Dorje Palsang travelled around and eventually came to Ladakh where the king was so impressed with his realization and miraculous power. Thus, he was granted vast pieces of land. Somehow he decided to build a monastery in Matho to benefit the people here. Ever since, the two Rongtsens settled here to guard Dorje Palsang’s activity in accordance to their oaths.

榮贊附身在喇嘛身上後,這兩位僧人會在寺廟屋頂只有手掌寬的簷壁上奔跑,加持寺院各處和回答信眾的問題,祂們說的話只有僧人聽得懂。紅榮贊總是跑在前面,較為忿怒,常常揮舞軍刀——往寺廟屋簷或墻壁上揮時,就是砂石崩裂四射;往自己身上砍時,則似乎肌膚發紅但不見血;往自己口舌處切割時則會出血,但是第二天又完全復原。白榮贊雖然也做這些讓人驚駭的舉動,但是行止平靜許多,反而是在遊走高處時,眼神渙散朝天凝視,腳步顢跚若醉,讓我很為他捏把冷汗,特別是他們倒著走的時候。
Every year, during the 10th-15th of the first month of Tibetan lunar calendar, the two Rongtsens would come to two chosen monks. During these few days, they perform various tasks from assigning tasks to monk/lay people during the festival, blessing the monastery and the assemblage, making predictions in accordance to requests, giving advice on practice…People from all over Ladakh and even overseas come to see them during this period.

每天都有很多人向榮贊問問題,不過聽說榮贊除了回答問題(像是今年村子的收成如何、今年該修什麽法等),尚以當眾揭露心懷不軌者聞名。要是有僧人跳金剛舞時跳錯了,也會被他們打。政治性問題他們不予回答。曾經有某大仁波切繞著圈子來重覆問問題,想要考驗祂們,結果被怒斥説“我們是自蓮花生大士以來即具誓守護佛法者,你是什麽東西,膽敢來考驗我們?!”節慶期間吹奏吉祥樂的喇叭樂手(這邊除了法樂外,榮贊出現期間還有三人民間樂手的樂團奏樂)前幾年過世了,他的兒子不願意繼承這工作,榮贊也對此表示不滿。還有一年,有個日本人不顧禁令偷偷照了相,馬上生起重病,最後懺悔修法後才好。 人眾中有心思不良者,榮贊也會怒叱其人。總之,這類的故事很多。所以,在祂們降臨時,我很努力讓自己不要想些有的沒的,免得給祂們修理。
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我唯一看到一次紅榮贊發飆是在他要進大殿時。那時,大殿階梯上坐著很多人,只留下中間一條走道,左邊最上面卻有個空位,我正琢磨著要不要從擠得要命的這邊換位子去那裡。還好沒去,過兩分鐘祂過來入殿時,突然揮刀朝階梯左側最下面的一個人身上打去,還打了不止一下。人擠得要逃命都空間有限,那群人個個臉色發白,向旁流竄。不知道是他看了礙眼(他出大殿後會站在左方台階頂端一會兒),還是那第一個被打的人心不清淨?
The Red Rongtsen is always the more fierce one. Both of them would wave their sabers around and toward themselves, and sometimes Red Rongtsen would have so much blood from cutting his own tongue. Fortunately all these wounds would fully recovered within a day.  A few years back, once he was very mad and yelled at the Rinpoche conducting the event, saying that nowadays people lack of devotion so they do not want to come any more, and wrathfully blamed the Rinpoche summoning them. Later on both HH Sakya Trizin and Luding Khenchen Rinpoche wrote some letters to remind them of the their own vows. Apparently it worked so they still come every year afterwards without yelling at other Rinpoches.

初10,也就是降神的第一天,榮贊會在一群當地男子中選取了一些人擔任各種工作,像是負責維持秩序的僧人、下個月要去遠方山上煨桑的。在擔任榮贊僧人屆滿的前一年,榮贊也會在候選僧人中指派下一任僧人。前幾年還指派過瑪透寺的洛本、領唱師等職務。

某日,白榮贊在大殿門口臺階上現忿怒姿態,狂揮亂砍,適逢一個三歲娃兒晃出人群走到他下方,榮贊刀到小娃兒頭上突然很溫柔的在他頭上加持了一下,小娃兒晃過後,他又繼續怒叱狂舞。
Rongtsen Karpo (the White one) is the more peaceful one. I always felt worried about him when they ran swiftly on the rooftop walls because he always looked up unfocusely at the sky and the way he walked was as if he were drunk. Once a 3-year old kid wandered out of the crowd and walked by him while he was wielding the saber fiercely.  Yet when the kid getting nearby, he suddenly stopped the waving around and hacking, extended the saber gently and blessed the kid by placing the saber on the crown of the kid with great loving-kindness.

人們也真的比較不怕白榮贊。榮贊離體時,兩位僧人都會昏厥倒地,由眾僧托起抬回大殿內。紅榮贊被抬回時,大家還是離得遠遠的;白榮贊被抬回時,一幫小孩會拿自己的帽子或衣物衝去觸碰白榮贊的鞋底做加持。不過,我看到幾個問問題的(大部分時候都是他們在寺廟各處指定地點內問,只有幾個是在屋頂上問,我才看得到),都是去問紅榮贊。

最後兩天是全日活動,上午跳金剛舞,下午神諭出現。這兩天人群爆滿,很多警察過來幫忙和當地村民代表一起維持秩序。
Tens of thousands of people flooded in during the last two days of the festival. Many policemen came to assist keeping order for safety reason.
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蒙著頭的就是兩位擔任榮贊的僧人。沒有降神時,他們都是紅袍覆面,手持燃香,保持清淨。擔任紅榮贊的僧人有一隻很靈的小白狗。他們兩人一年要閉關好幾個月,閉關期間斷絕手機電話等對外連繫,這位僧人需要家裡送東西時,就寫張紙條綁在小狗身上,小狗就會送信回家~~他家還不是在山下而已,他家在隔壁村子,開車都要幾十分鐘。
When Rongtsens did not come taking over their bodies, the two monks would have their head/face covered with a shawl and hold burning incense in public areas, but most of time they would stay in their respective houses doing rituals.

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巴庫拉仁波切也來看瑪透的榮贊,五歲的他戴著小小的黃帽,超級可愛。The 5 year old Bakula Rinpoche also came with his super cute little yellow hat.

原本很遺憾今年藏曆年比平常晚了一個月,到達的第二天開始,雪就融的只剩下高山上才見蹤影。瑪透的護法很給面子,慶典的最後一天早上起來,竟然一片白茫茫!昨晚下雪了!這下我不用等哪年藏曆年在一、二月時過來,就能看到白雪皚皚中的瑪透寺(芒拓寺)了!
The snow was mostly gone on my second day of arrival. I told Lama that I would like to come back next time when the Tibetan New Year falls in January so that I can see the monastery with more snow. The Matho protectors were very kind to fulfill that wish. On the last day of the festival, I woke up and discovered the whole area was covered by snow overnight.
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上午依然不停飄著細細的雪花,很為要穿梭在屋簷邊的榮贊感到擔心。因為下雪,上山不易,所以節慶延到十一點多才開始。到了下午又是滿滿的人潮,在紛飛白雪中瞻仰榮贊。當地老百姓每年看著榮贊,彼此間有很深刻的感情。榮贊出現時,群眾會一陣敬畏的靜默,然後一起大聲禮贊。榮贊除了是護法外,也是老百姓對佛法生起堅定信心的來源。

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榮贊就是在這屋頂的牆垣上跑來跑去。最後一天祂們還是蒙著眼睛奔走的。當祂們披頭散髮,上身裸露,前胸後背各繪上黑色瑪哈嘎拉面相,下身著獸皮裙,矇眼搖動鼗鼓巡行時,真的是很特別的時刻,就像護法從淨相中的世界來到現實世界中一般。
On the last day, Rongtsens not only ran around on top of the narrow walls like this one as what they did in the previous days, but they also had their eyes blindfolded! They also had their bodies painted in black with Mahakala faces on both the chest and the back and only put on tiger/leopard skin skirts and shoes in freezing temperature. Instead of the sabers, they held damarus. It was such a special moment to watch them sounding the damaru and walking around (blindfolded), just like the scene described in ancient texts came alive.

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瑪透/芒拓寺募款的其中一個方式是讓大家買彩票抽獎。彩票一聯放在一個大水桶裏,由村裏的小朋友抽出。頭獎2萬元盧比的得獎者是遠在德拉敦哦寺的小喇嘛!

After the festival ended, the monks drew lottery from the lottery tickets they sold in the past few days for fund raising. The 1st prize of 20,000 Rupees went to a monk still physically in Ngor Monastery in Manduwala.

降神時是嚴格不准拍照攝像的,但是上午的金剛舞則可以。這段攝像是法友在2010年拍的:
Photo/video shooting is strictly prohibited when oracles comes, but shooting is allowed during Chhams (sacred mask dances). This is a piece of nice work at YouTube:

http://youtu.be/rRCJwnMxe10

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