遍在的上师,还是遍在的自我?All-Pervading Guru or One’s Own All-Pervading Ego

有時會有朋友問我,特別是那些對新世紀靈修之類有興趣的人,他們會覺得既然一切都是自心的投射,都是自己想像出來的,那麼何必需要一個外在的上師?

對於佛教徒,這個問題相對簡單,「因為我們都還沒有證悟,所以需要有外在的師父來領路。」(當然,你得找到一個真實可靠的上師,或者說,你必須具有足夠的福德才能值遇一位具格又願意帶著你的上師。)

對於愛好獨立思辨的非佛教徒,他們可能會說:「但是你信不信這個師父、你如何解讀他的話語,還不是你自心決定的。我自己讀書,自己去領略世間萬物能給我的教導,不就夠了?」

我以前只能說,要到那個境界,必須是非常根器、智慧之人,反正像我這樣的普通人是做不到的。例如,有師兄問過我:「為什麼我們需要一位元上師?為什麼我不能把《心經》當我師父?」那時我說,因為在我誤入歧途時,比較需要有師父刪我一耳光,把我拽回正道上,我很確定那些時候我是不會想到要去跟《心經》談心。

再讀一遍創巴仁波切的教言後,更是領悟到為何我們確實需要上師。因為上師是我們修虔敬心的對象。當我們真的敞開自己,臣服於一位外在上師,然後再修持「上師與自心無別」,才比較可能正確達到那個「見一切都是教法」的境界。若是我們閉門造車,自己看看書,上上或這或那的靈修課程,而自以為見一切都是教法,事實上更可能是「見一切都是自我」,於是修行之道成為長養自我之道——凡是讓自我不爽的事情,就無關修行;凡是讓自我感覺良好的事情,就成為自己獨特的「修行」。

金剛乘的「以上師為道」實在殊勝奧妙!

Sometimes friends would ask me, especially those into new-age type of spiritual courses, “if everything is just your mind, why do you need a guru?” For most people, having a guru is such an unbearable thought to one’s ego.

For those who pride themselves on independent thinking, they might even claim that “Since it is still one’s own mind deciding how to interpret these so-called guru’s words, I might as well see everything (from all life situations, from above…however you want to frame it) as teachings to myself instead of having a guru.”

In the past I could only say that level is for people with superior faculties and a lot of wisdom. But after reading Trungpa Rinpoche’s words again, I finally realize how dangerous it might be to just take classes and do some readings here and there  and think “everything is my teacher. ” Only after we really open ourselves, display our ego and surrender to an external guru, will there be a chance to reach that level of truly seeing teachings from everything. Otherwise, one is more likely to see everything as one’s own ego. Then the spiritual path might unfortunately turn into a path of nourishing one’s own ego—whatever makes the ego discomfortable is irrelevant to practice; whatever makes oneself feel right is a “path”.

The Vajrayana way of taking guru as one’s own path is indeed amazingly profound and skillful!

 

邱阳创巴仁波切:遍在的上师 (转载自《自由的迷思》)

http://book.douban.com/subject/1958486/

http://www.books.com.tw/products/0010574072

0 (1) 自由的迷思(新版)

自由的迷思

紀律與虔敬是攜手並進的,同時也是相輔相成的,我們可以將二者比喻成一隻鳥的雙翼。如果不是兩者兼具,就無法與善知識、上師或戰士連上關係;而沒有善知識就不可能了悟佛法,沒有佛法就無法開發基本的智慧,而沒有基本的智慧就沒有行動、沒有證悟的旅程與創造的能量……。

精神探索的難題之一,就是我們常會以為只要自己多讀書、多修習就可以自我幫助,不必與任何特殊傳承有所關聯;但是不去追隨一位上師,沒有一個虔敬的對象,我們就無法從精神的唯物主義中解放自己。

首先要發展我們的虔敬心,這是非常重要的,因為如此可使我們不被自我佔有。虔敬是一個過程,它讓你忘掉以前所學的知識;如果沒有對上師的虔誠與信服,我們就無法解除所知障。當然我們也可以說,有時即使有上師,仍可能產生更深的精神唯物觀念;但這關乎上師的素質及弟子的溝通,端賴師生間是否有適切的聯繫。有時一位修持高的善知識遇到上根器的弟子,二人卻不相應,雖然就本質看來,二人相會應可激出火花。

我們談到的任何一種虔敬的方式都各有其地位。我們無法一開始就使用金剛乘的方式,那無異于自尋死路,就如同一個嬰兒要去模仿成年人一樣。各種虔敬的方式並不只是發展的進階,同時也是每一發展階段的不同面向——某一刻你需要一位像父母親一樣的人,下一刻你生病了需要一位醫生,再一刻你又可能需要像戰士般的鼓舞。

無論如何,在開始時,我們必須使用小乘的虔敬方法,那實際上包含了大乘的慈悲與金剛乘的勇敢;但在外觀的動作上看來,主要是小乘的。學佛之路的每一階段都有一主要的修習課目。小乘式的虔敬表現在上師與弟子之間簡單、人性化的關係上:上師不被當作是禪、聖人或天使,他是一位持戒嚴謹、學養豐富的人,我們能夠認同他並與他溝通;他不是火星人假扮的地球人,他也是某人的兒子,在這個世界上歷盡辛苦地長大,與佛法結緣,且在修持上卓有成就,我們可以與他接觸而不會去幻想各種的神通。

小乘的方式很實在:你和另一人結上關係,而他恰巧是位成就者。大乘的方式則是此人成就如此高超,對日常生活的種種具有非比尋常的覺知,他隨時隨地保有的覺性使他了知一切,但他也發展了無比的慈悲去包容你的缺點。你要學佛對你的善知識來說可能是一大笑話,你的作為可能像個完全糊塗且莫名其妙的人,但是他卻從未對你放棄希望,他接納你,並忍受你惹出來的麻煩。他對你非常有耐心,你做錯了事,他會教你如何改正,之後,你又因忘記或歪曲了他的指導而犯下了更多的錯誤。當你回到上師那裡時,“算了,我們還是可以合作。現在再來試試這個計畫!”而你又去試了。起初你很起勁,信心十足地去做,但是幾天之後對整個事情厭煩了,你又找到其他引為樂的東西了。譬如你的上師可能要你精進坐禪,暫時不要讀書,但是偏偏你得到一本書,你忍不住不去讀它——那好像也是教法的一部分嘛!你回到善知識那裡說:“我本來是照您教我的在做,可是偏偏我得了這本書,我忍不住不看。”善知識就說:“沒關係,你從書裡學到什麼了嗎?如果你有所獲得就繼續認真讀下去,找出書中深刻的涵義。”你試著接下去讀那本書,但不久又厭煩了。那恰是春光明媚的日子,花草、樹木與大自然如此令人迷醉,你不禁把書擱在一邊,出去踏青,去享受自然的美妙,與處身在大自然中的“禪定”境界。守紀律是非常困難的,而你不斷地製造小岔路,卻不自覺自己正步入歧途。問題並不在於你不服從上師,問題是你太認真,因為認真而去尋那些岔路。因此你的上師必須具有無窮的耐心,雖然看到你時而不守規矩,時而輕浮妄動,他仍然不厭其煩地教導你。

一位菩薩就像一隻鱷魚一樣,一旦你掉進它嘴裡,它便絕不鬆口。如果你想放棄學佛去過自由的日子,打算離開上師,他會說:“好極了,照你自己的意思,想離開就離開吧!”他同意你離去,等於是消除你想反叛的目標,使你非但不走開反而更加靠近。這形成一種顛倒的情勢:由於上師對弟子的虔誠非常強烈,使得即便愚鈍、本身問題很多的弟子的虔敬心也開始蘇醒。上師以慈悲表示對弟子的虔誠,弟子則以紀律表達對上師的虔敬,慈悲與紀律因而開始產生了交集。

最後,我們來到金剛乘的虔敬方式,那時你已放棄了所有曾經令你著迷的事;你已經融入佛道,而現象界則變成了上師的一種表達,你也感到對現象界有一分虔敬。你終於認同上師的教法,並且時而扮演教法的代言人,甚至代替你的下意識發言。如果我們到達這一階段,則生活中發生的每件事裡都包含訊息、都包含教訓——教法無所不在。這不是簡單的機關把戲那種魔術,而是一種你真正可以稱之為魔術的不可思議境界。這之間牽涉到因果的關係,你生命中發生的事,一件件都是教法的代言人,你再也無法脫離這位上師,而事實上你也不願意離開他,因為你已經認同他、信服他了。此時,教法不再那麼閉塞而不實際,它使你發現生活情境中猶如教法的魔術特質。

一般說來,虔敬被認為是發自內心,而非來自於頭腦。但是密續中的虔敬則與心和頭腦都有關係。譬如在《西藏度亡經》(The Tibetan Book of the Dead)裡所使用的象徵是:寂靜尊出自你的心,忿怒尊出自你的腦。金剛乘的方法是理性的——心與腦並用,小乘與大乘佛法中的虔敬則是發自於內心。密續處理生活的方式就某方面來說是知性的,因為你開始觀察事物背後的涵義,你開始看出令你猛醒的訊息;但是,那種理解力並非根據推想而得,那是用你不折不扣的整個心去感受到的。因此我們可以說,密續的方法是:對於無所不在的上師之教導,起初是用智力去理解,然後此智力轉化為金剛智,同時開始激發心的直觀。

這是理想的智慧與空性的結合,亦即眼與心的合一。日常事務都成為各自獨立的法教,信任的觀念派不上用場了。你可能會問:“誰在信任?”沒人!信任本身即是信任,自具能量之壇城,不需要任何東西去維持,它自身即可維持。空間無邊際也無中心,空間的任一角落皆是中心,也是邊際——。這即是無所不在的虔敬,虔敬者與受虔敬之對象已渾然不可分。

不過,我們切莫沈迷在這種刺激又神秘的語言之中,我們必須就從簡單的開始做起:把我們的自我給出來,敞開它,展示它,將它作為對上師的獻禮。我們如果做不到,就永遠無法步上成佛之路。佛法雖存在,但仍須由行者親身去認明、去體證。

 

THE UNIVERSALITY OF GURU (Excerpt from The Myth of Freedom by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche)

Discipline goes hand in hand with devotion. They are both important to each other. We could say that discipline and devotion are like the two wings of a bird. Without both of them together there is no way to relate to the spiritual friend, teacher, or warrior. And without a spiritual friend there is no way to realize the teachings. And without the teachings there is no way of developing basic sanity. And without basic sanity there is no journey, no movement, there is no creative energy.

One of the problems of spiritual searching is that we tend to feel that we can help ourselves purely by reading a lot and practicing by ourselves, not associating ourselves with a particular lineage. Without a teacher to surrender to, without an object of devotion, we cannot free ourselves from spiritual materialism.

It is important first to develop a sense of devotion that allows us to be disowned by our ego. Devotion is a process of unlearning. If there is no devotion, no surrendering, we cannot unlearn. Of course we could say that sometimes even having a spiritual friend might generate further spiritual materialism as well. But it depends on the qualities of the friend and the communication of the student, whether a link is properly made or not. It is possible that a spiritual friend who is highly evolved could meet an embryonically highly evolved person and not form a proper link. Their chemistry together must produce a spark.

Each of the approaches to devotion that we have talked about has its place. We cannot begin immediately with the vajrayana devotional approach. It would be suicidal. It would be like an infant trying to imitate a grown-up. The various styles of devotion are not just progressive stages of development. They are also different aspects of each stage of development. One minute you might need a parental figure, another minute you feel sick and need a physician, another minute you might need warriorlike encouragement.

Nevertheless, we must start with the hinayana version of devotion which contains elements of the sympathy of the mahayana approach and the bravery of the vajrayana approach. But the external acts are predominantly hinayanist. Each stage along the path has its dominant themes. The hinayana approach to devotion is predominantly a simple relationship with your spiritual friend, a human relationship. The spiritual friend is not regarded as a god, saint, or angel, but he is regarded as a human being who has gone through tremendous discipline and learning. We can identify with this person because we can communicate with him. He is not a Martian who is pretending to be an earthman, but he is a son of man who grew up in this world and experienced all kinds of difficulties and was able to relate with the teaching and accomplish tremendous things. We can relate with this person without fantasizing all kinds of mysteries.

The hinayanist approach is very matter of fact: you are relating to another human being who happens to be accomplished. And the mahayanist approach is that this person is so highly accomplished that he is extraordinarily in tune with the events of everyday life. He has a perfectly constant awareness so that he does not miss a point. And he has developed exceedingly powerful compassion to live through your negativities. Your trying to walk on the spiritual path may be a big joke to your spiritual friend. You may act as an absolutely confused and absurd person. Nevertheless this person never gives up hope for you. He accepts you and goes through the irritations that you create. He is tremendously patient with you. You do something wrong and he instructs you how to correct it. But then you slip up or distort the instruction; you create further mistakes. You back to your spiritual friend and he says, “Fine, we can still work together, but now try this project,” and you try again. You start with tremendous energy and confidence that you can do it. Several days later you get tired of the whole thing. You find something else with which to entertain yourself. The spiritual friend might ask you to do an intensive meditation practice without reading books, but you find that a book jumps into your lap and you cannot help reading it. It seems to be a part of the teaching as well. And you go back to the spiritual friend and say, “I followed your instructions but this book jumped into my lap and I could not help reading it.” The spiritual friend then says, “That’s fine. Did you learn anything from it? If you did, take the book and keep reading, find out what the book has to say in depth.” And you go back and try to read the book, but you tire of reading. It’s springtime. The flowers and trees and nature are so glamorous that you cannot help putting the book aside and taking a nice walk, enjoying the beauty of nature and the “meditative” state of being in nature. Following discipline is very difficult and you constantly create sidetracks by not realizing that you are sidetracking. The problem is not that you disobey your spiritual friend. In fact, the problem is that you are too serious; you find your sidetracks by being very serious. So it requires tremendous patience for your spiritual friend to work with you despite your slipping in and out of disciplines, despite your frivolousness.

A bodhisattva is like a crocodile: once you land in its mouth it never lets you go. If you were to want to leave your spiritual friend in order to live a free life away from such involvement, he would say, “That’s great, do as you wish, go ahead and leave.” By approving your leaving he removes the object of your rebellion, so instead of going away you come closer. It is a reciprocal situation: the guru’s devotion to the student is intense and therefore the student’s devotion begins to awaken, even if he is stupid and thick and burdened with all kinds of problems. The teacher’s devotion to the student is compassion and the devotion of the student to the teacher is discipline. So compassion and discipline begin to meet together at some point.

And then we come to the vajrayana type of devotion in which you have given up fascination. You have identified with the path and the phenomenal world becomes an expression of the guru. There is a sense of devotion to the phenomenal world. You finally identify with the teachings and occasionally you act as a spokesman for them. Even to your own subconscious mind you act as their spokesman. If we are able to reach this level, then any events which occur in life have messages in them, have teachings in them. Teachings are everywhere. This is not a simple-minded notion of magic in the sense of gadgetry or trickery, but it is an astounding situation which you could interpret as magic. There is cause and effect involved. The events of your life act as a spokesman constantly and you cannot get away from this guru; in fact you do not want to because you identify with it. Thus the teachings become less claustrophobic, which enables you to discover the magical quality of life situations as a teaching.

Generally, devotion is regarded as coming from the heart rather than the head. But tantric devotion involves the head as well as the heart. For instance, the Tibetan Book of the Dead uses the symbolism of the peaceful deities coming out of your heart and the wrathful deities coming from your head. The vajrayana approach is a head approach—head plus heart together. The hinayana and mahayana approaches to devotion come from the heart. The tantric approach to life is intellectual in some sense because you begin to read the implications behind things. You begin to see messages that wake you up. But at the same time that intellect is not based upon speculation but is felt wholeheartedly, with one-hundred-percent heart. So we could say that the tantric approach to the messages of the all-pervading guru is to begin with intellect, which is transmuted into vajra intellect, and that begins to ignite the intuition of the heart at the same time.

This is the ideal fundamental union of prajna and shunyata, the union of eyes and heart together. Everyday events become self-existing teachings. Even the notion of trust does not apply any more. You might ask, “Who is doing this trusting?” Nobody! Trust itself is trusting itself. The mandala of self-existing energy does not have to be maintained by anything at all; it maintains itself. Space does not have a fringe or a center. Each corner of space is center as well as fringe. That is the all-pervading devotion in which the devotee is not separate from the object of devotion.

But before we indulge too much in such exciting and mystical language, we have to start very simply by giving, opening, displaying our ego, making a gift of our ego to our spiritual friend. If we are unable to do this, then the path never begins because there is nobody to walk on it. The teaching exists but the practitioner must acknowledge the teaching, must embody it.

http://www.amazon.com/Myth-Freedom-Meditation-Shambhala-Classics-ebook/dp/B00452VFEO/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1386736600&sr=8-1&keywords=The+Myth+of+Freedom+and+the+Way+of+Meditation

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