宗薩欽哲仁波切談不丹傳奇大伏藏王貝瑪林巴 Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche on Pema Lingpa

js0008_thumbIntroduction for the publication of the Chinese version of  "The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa" in Taiwan by Oak Tree Publishing. English text at the end.

密續是一條大膽無畏的道途,它與一般人的思維框架並不相符。由於密續的整個重點是在於跳脫常規的框架性思考,也就是要超越那些規範一般人思維的參數而思考,因此,我們必須非常勇敢,才能夠依循這條道途。密續之道也必須不斷證明其自身的純正性——迄今,聲聞乘和大乘的追隨者依然否認密續是由佛陀所教導的。而這些對續部的普遍疑慮,若與人們對偉大伏藏教法的懷疑和不信任相比,則是微不足道的。然而,令我們產生懷疑的原因,往往也成為我們之所以受到伏藏教法啓發與激勵的原因。例如,貝瑪.林巴有數篇關於十八部大圓滿教文的論釋,是非常直接且切中要點的教法,在很多其他大師的著作中有所引述,亦可佐證我們何以最好不要輕忽伏藏教法。

關於伏藏教法以及取出伏藏教法的伏藏師們,你要謹記在心的是:在藏傳佛教的歷史中,從未有任何一位伏藏師所取出的伏藏不是源自於佛陀;也從未有任何一位伏藏師聲稱,自己取出了一部佛陀未曾親授的教法。事實上,伏藏師總是大費周章地表明,自己不過是依止釋迦牟尼佛的教法,並對這些教法提出補充和做出貢獻。

貝瑪.林巴的誕生可見於蓮師的一則授記。故事始於一位母親和孩子們共同建造位於加德滿都、今日仍受人朝拜的博達納佛塔(Boudhnath Stupa,俗稱「大白塔」)。完工之際,每一位成員都獻上了不可思議的發願——這些是我們所應努力效仿的發願——其中一位兒子發願要在未來的某世成為偉大的上師,另一位兒子則發願要提供那位上師所需要的一切護持。就在發願之時,一隻小蚊子叮了發願要提供護持的男孩一口,數百年後,蚊子轉世成為赤松德贊王的女兒——貝瑪薩公主(蓮花明)。由於她仍然擔負著重大的業債,因此壽命短暫,有些人說她在八歲時就死了,有些人則說是十歲。但的是,在往生時,蓮師和父親都在場且她的父王請求蓮師幫助自己心愛的女兒,於是蓮師將她的神識召回身體,並授予她《空行心髓》(Khandro Nyingtik,康卓寧體)的教法。蓮師表示,當時尚不需要這些教法,但在適當時刻來臨時,貝瑪薩公主就會轉世,而這位轉世不是別人,正是貝瑪.林巴。

蓮師對貝瑪.林巴的授記非常簡潔,卻是個美妙的描述。蓮師說,貝瑪薩公主轉世的身形很矮,矮到幾乎像侏儒一般,並會有暗紅色的肌膚、馬鳴般的聲音,而且說話極為粗俗、無禮。這些敘述全都應驗了。他還授記貝瑪薩轉世時會成為諸多流言蜚語的對象,這也與事實相符,貝瑪.林巴的確一輩子都不時遭受非議。這倒不令人驚訝,因為他並非是個容易相處的人。別的不說,他說話大半若非粗鄙、就是不夠圓融,單是這一點,就讓人受不了。

貝瑪.林巴的出身種姓極為卑賤,是以打鐡為生。他非常忙碌,總是身處各種忙亂之中。當他進行鍛造工作時,注意力甚至會渙散到事後才發現自己竟然赤手拿著炙熱燒紅的金屬!然而,他卻完全沒被燙傷,毫無疤痕,甚至也不覺得疼痛。在不丹,今日仍然留有很多他所製作的刀、劍,有些上面還烙著他的指印。不幸的是,神妙的故事並不一定會感動那些因襲傳統、好作批判的心。他在世的時候,不只遭受批評,還被指控是騙子、偽伏藏師,完全不被當成是一位大伏藏師。這一切必然都令他感到惱怒,因為他最後決定要證明自己是位真正的伏藏師。

在貝瑪.林巴位於不丹的居處,附近有一座峽谷,其中有一極深的水潭,今日被稱作「美巴措」(Mebar Tsho,火焰湖或燃燒湖)。某日,貝瑪.林巴站在水邊宣布:「如果我不是真正的伏藏師,那麼我跳進這潭裡就會死去。如果我是伏藏師,我就會帶著伏藏教法回來。」於是他手持一盞火光閃爍的酥油燈,縱身跳進了水裡;幾個小時之後,又重新冒出水面,手上還拿著仍在燃燒的酥油燈,右腋下則挾著一些石頭和文卷。就是從這些石頭和文卷中,取出了很多的貝瑪.林巴伏藏教法。

貝瑪.林巴是公認的五位伏藏王之一。不僅他本人受到極高的尊崇,就連他的很多轉世也是如此。在蔣揚.欽哲.旺波所書錄的自身淨相中說到,有一次,他造訪蓮師的銅色山淨土時,在那裡遇見一位素未謀面的男子,身上穿的是不丹喇嘛常見的紅色生絲衣著。欽哲.旺波對這男子頗感好奇,他寫道:「我不曉得他在吃些什麽,但他的嘴頰裡塞著某種鮮紅色的東西,而且片刻不停地咀嚼著。」直到那次淨相結束之後,欽哲.旺波才想起,數天前,貝瑪.林巴的第三任轉世在不丹圓寂了。於是欽哲.旺波思忖:「當然了,他圓寂之後必然直接回家,到銅色山去了。」那位轉世所咀嚼的「鮮紅色東西」就是檳榔,不丹喇嘛們總是嚼著檳榔,但在東藏沒有檳榔,所以蔣揚.欽哲.旺波先前從未見過檳榔。

你或許會覺得,從水潭中撈出伏藏教法的這個想法實在可笑,很多大乘的追隨者就是這麼認為;但若你閱讀《華嚴經》等佛經就會發現,往昔的菩薩眾皆曾熱切地祈願,希望有朝一日,樹叢中的風聲和流動的水聲,都能在聽聞者的耳裡成為佛法。如果大乘的追隨者能接受這種觀念,那麽為何不能接受這些伏藏教法呢?

我們必須牢牢記得,伏藏教法並非由某個被鬼靈附身的人所任意揭示,伏藏原本就是由佛陀所授予的教法。因此,如果你將貝瑪.林巴的任何一部伏藏和《華嚴經》或任何一部大乘佛經作比較,並且保持開放的心胸,就會發現兩者毫不相違,事實上還能圓滿地相輔相成。

關於大伏藏師貝瑪.林巴生平和教法的這本書,現已譯成中文,我祈願並希望藉由讓中文世界的讀者得以閱覽這位大師的故事,從而為現在和未來都帶來利益。

宗薩欽哲仁波切2014.07.25

(感謝宗薩欽哲仁波切賜文予橡樹林文化出版社,普賢法譯小組中譯)

關於《偉大的不丹傳奇.五大伏藏王之一 貝瑪林巴之生平與伏藏教法》,請參見:https://bellachao.wordpress.com/2015/03/07/peling/

 

js0008_thumbDzongar Khyentse Rinpoche on Pema Lingpa

Tantra is an audacious path and one that doesn’t fit in with how human beings usually think. We have to be very daring to follow this path, because the whole point of Tantra is to think outside the box—to think outside the parameters that shape ordinary human thinking. Tantrayana is also a path that’s constantly having to prove its authenticity—to this day, followers of the Shravakayana and Mahayana deny that Tantra was taught by the Buddha. But these widespread misgivings about Tantra are nothing in comparison with the doubts and mistrust people have about the great treasure teachings (terma). Yet, the very cause of our doubts often becomes the reason we find treasure teachings so inspiring. For instance, few of Pema Lingpa’s commentaries on the eighteen Mahasandhi texts—teachings that are so direct and so to the point—can be found in any other master’s works, and are very good examples of why it’s best not to ignore or dismiss the treasure teachings.

One thing that’s important to bear in mind about treasure teachings and the masters who reveal them (tertöns), is that not a single tertön in the history of Tibetan Buddhism has ever revealed a treasure that didn’t originate with the Buddha. Nor has a tertön ever claimed to reveal a teaching that Buddha hadn’t already taught himself. In fact, tertöns have always gone to a great deal of trouble to make it clear that they are merely following, complimenting and contributing towards the teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha.

The birth of Pema Lingpa was foreseen in a prophecy made by Guru Rinpoche. The story began with a mother and her children building what is now known as the Boudhnath Stupa in Kathmandu—we can still visit it today. Once they’d finished, each member of the family offered incredible aspirations—the kind we should all try to emulate—with one son aspiring to become a great master in a future life, and another aspiring to provide that master with all support he needed. At the very moment the aspirations were made, a tiny mosquito stung the boy who wanted to provide the support, and was reborn centuries later as King Trison Deutsen’s daughter, Princess Pema Sal. Burdened as she still was by a heavy load of karmic debt, she couldn’t live for very long—some say she died when she was eight years old, others say ten. Fortunately for her, Guru Rinpoche was there when she died, as was her father, who implored Guru Rinpoche to help his beloved daughter. So Guru Rinpoche returned her consciousness to her body and quickly gave her the Khandro Nyingtik teachings. These teachings weren’t yet needed, he said, but when the time was right to reveal them, Princess Pema Sal would reincarnate as none other than Pema Lingpa.

Guru Rinpoche’s prophecies about Pema Lingpa are concise, but wonderfully descriptive. The incarnation of Princess Pema Sal, said Guru Rinpoche, would be very short, almost a dwarf, have dark red skin, a voice like a horse and he would say the most vulgar and offensive things—all of which turned out to be quite true. He also predicted that Pema Sal’s incarnation would be the subject of a great deal of scandal, and indeed, Pema Lingpa was at times criticized throughout his life—which isn’t that surprising because he wasn’t an easy man to get along with. Apart from anything else, every other word he spoke was either lewd or tactless.

Pema Lingpa came from a very low caste and worked as a blacksmith. He was a very busy person, always surrounded by chaos, and as he worked at his forge he could become so distracted that he’d find himself holding red hot metal in his bare hands. Yet he suffered no burns or scars or even pain. Today many of the swords and knives he made still exist in Bhutan and some have his fingerprints seared into the metal. Unfortunately, miracle stories don’t necessarily move conventional, judgmental minds, and during his lifetime he was not only criticized, but accused of being a fraud and a trickster, not a great tertön at all. All of which must have irritated him because eventually he decided to prove himself.

There is a very deep pool in a gorge in Bhutan near where Pema Lingpa lived—it’s known these days as Mebar Tsho (the Burning Lake). One day, as Pema Lingpa stood by the water, he declared, "If I’m not an authentic tertön, when I jump into this pool I will die. If I am a tertön, I will return with treasure teachings." Holding a flickering butter lamp he leapt into the water, then resurfaced several hours later with the butter lamp still burning and carrying stones and bundles under his right arm. It was from amongst those stones and bundles that many of Pema Lingpa’s treasure teachings were revealed.

Pema Lingpa is said to be one of five king tertöns. Not only is he himself very highly revered, but many of his incarnations are too. In Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo’s written records of his pure visions, he tells of a visit he made to Guru Rinpoche’s Copper-Coloured Mountain, where he came across a man he’d never seen there before. The man was wearing red raw silk, the kind often worn by Bhutanese lamas, and Khyentse Wangpo was curious about him. "I don’t know what he was eating," he wrote, "But there was something bright red stuffed into his cheek, and he didn’t stop chewing for a second." It wasn’t until the pure vision was over that Khyentse Wangpo remembered the third incarnation of Pema Lingpa had died in Bhutan a few days earlier. "Of course," thought Khyentse Wangpo. "After he passed away he must have gone straight home, to the Copper-Coloured Mountain." The ‘something bright red’ that the incarnation chewed was betel nut, which Bhutanese lamas chew all the time. But you can’t get betel nuts in eastern Tibet and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo had never seen it before.

You may laugh at the idea that treasure teachings can be fished out of a pond—many followers of the Mahayana do. But if you read, for example, the Avatamsaka Sutra, you will see that historically, bodhisattvas have prayed fervently for a future in which the sounds of wind in the trees and running water will be heard as Dharma teachings. If followers of the Mahayana can accept that idea, why can’t they accept these treasure teachings?

We must always bear in mind that a treasure teaching isn’t an arbitrary revelation made by someone possessed by a demon or a spirit, it’s a teaching that was originally given by the Buddha. So, if you were to compare any one of Pema Lingpa’s treasures with the Avamtamsaka Sutra or any of the Mahayana sutras,  and if you could also keep an open mind,  you would see that they in no way contradict each other. In fact, they complement each other perfectly.

This book about the life and teachings of the great Tertön Pema Lingpa has been translated into Chinese. My aspiration and hope is that by making his story accessible to Chinese-speaking world, it will be of benefit both now and in the years to come.

Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche

(Introduction for the publication of the Chinese version of  "The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa" in Taiwan by Oak Tree Publishing)

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