無敵簡單的自製酸奶 Homemade Yogurt

某人前兩週說他要自己做優酪乳(酸奶),從此我們再也沒有買過店裡的。每兩三天他就變出一罐新鮮的優酪乳,比店裡買的香濃好吃,外加省錢(買的一罐150盧比,買牛奶只要100盧比,狂降1/3)。當然,重點還是自己做的比較新鮮好吃。

今天問了一下做法,發現簡單到不行。原來以前讀到的那些什麼電飯鍋、煲粥鍋、麵包機的酸奶模式完全用不著,也不需要溫度計小心翼翼地量溫度(當然,他可能是有經驗,所以不用溫度計,估計我自己做的話,頭幾次還是量量的好)。

So a couple of weeks ago my housemate said he was going to make yogurt himself. And from the next day on, we have been having freshly made yogurt every since. Yes, it does taste better than the store purchased ones.

Today just out of curiosity, I asked him about the process and it turned out to be much much easier than I ever expected. I guess I was fooled by all those fancy instant pots, bread machines and rice cookers with their “yogurt making mode".

按他口述的做法是:

  1. 加熱牛奶,滾了以後可以小火煮久些 (蒸發掉的水分愈多,做出來的酸奶就愈濃稠)
  2. 稍微涼後倒進砂鍋裡,等到溫度微溫時,加一湯匙原有的酸奶,稍微攪拌
  3. 蓋上後等12小時,凝結後就可以放冰箱拉~

It literally only needs 3 steps according to him:

  1. Boil the milk (can be simmered for a longer period to make the milk thicker and hence the end product will also turn thicker)
  2. Pour the milk into a clay pot when it’s bit cooler (actually it can be any pot or container, sometimes he just pours it when the milk becomes lukewarm) and add one teaspoon of yogurt in to the milk when the milk becomes lukewarm.
  3. Let it sit for 12 hours and it’s ready to be put into the fridge after being coagulated.

話說這個菩薩幫我搬來尼泊爾的日本砂鍋實在太好用了,從來沒想到拿這個來做酸奶。夏天用不用砂鍋其實無所謂,冬天或可幫助維溫(以前他們在喜馬拉雅山上冬天也就拿個普通鍋做,外面毛巾包包也做的出來)。

Of course, I think the raw ingredient is important. In Nepal, only grass fed milk is available. And this heat retaining Japanese pot probably also makes some difference. (Without it, in winter time, you may need to figure out another way to keep regular pots lukewarm for a longer period of time, such as wrapping some towels around–at least that’s what they did in Himalaya.)

Flower Juice 紅花汁

Flower juice. Lama said these tree flowers have medicinal properties for curing heat related ailment such as dizziness, headache, nose bleeding etc.

They used to eat these flowers for fun as kids. Juicing is more a modern day phenomena. 

A lot of work to come up with little juice and only 120 Rs per bottle. Quite refreshing taste. 

花汁,據從小生長在比爾的喇嘛說,可以治熱病,像是頭暈、頭痛、流鼻血之類的。

他們小時候常到山上摘這個樹花,吃著玩,把舌頭染出紅紅的。他還是第一次看到有人在賣這個汁。很費工,要把白色花心剝掉,花瓣榨汁率很低,一大捧花瓣也就一點點汁。才120盧比一瓶,可以兑水或加糖,原味也不難喝。

@Kangra, India. On the way from Bir to Tso Pena.  印度比爾到措貝瑪的中途

好砧板和壞砧板的差別

塑膠的最爛。馬上有刮痕不說,而且痕跡裡都是黴菌。毅然決然地把姑姑這塊扔了。

木頭的貌似稍微好些,不過也很難說,因為這塊我只拿來切自己烤好的麵包,所以沒什麼碰到水的機會。

Epicurean 這塊果然像他們宣傳的一樣,木屑壓成的滑板材質,很堅固,薄薄一片,用過後就很難回去用一般厚重的砧板了。而且材質沒有氣孔,不會長霉,這塊用了一年多,確實如此。據說也不傷刀刃。因為是木屑做的,還很環保。目前是我的最愛。

Husk’s Ware 這個米糠壓的也很厲害,和上面那塊同時買的,也同樣環保又不長霉。缺點是很重,小塊用用還行,大塊就和傳統木頭砧板一樣重。另外因為是凹凸表面的,不適合用有鋸齒的刀切東西。還有,硬度應該比上面那塊高,基本沒有刮痕,所以有點擔心會傷刀刃。目前拿來送給切東西比較暴力的人使用。經久耐用應該這個排第一。 :p

從蟹足菇到泥鰍 from beech mushrooms to loaches


炒了一盤蟹足菇後,突然想到小時候祖母跟我說的一道菜。

她說,拿一塊冰涼的豆腐,旁邊放上泥鰍,擺在鍋裡蒸,泥鰍就會鑽到豆腐裡躲避高溫,然後死在裡面。不知道這是她在上海還是福州會做的菜,估計蘭州的可能性比較低。

小時候的我沈迷在古龍《絕代雙驕》等武俠小說的各種珍饈甚至怪異菜餚中,李大嘴連人肉都吃了,所以只覺得這道菜聽起來很有創意。到長大後,才感覺這菜委實殘忍,還好也一直沒人要做給我吃。

今天看到炒好的蟹足菇,就想到吃蟹足菇不是挺好的,人們幹嘛總要去折騰其他生靈。

最近在看美劇Hannibal,愈看愈覺得那是提倡素食人士的另類宣導方法。裡面有一段劇情是男主角讓衣冠楚楚的對頭坐在奢華擺設的餐桌前,每天給對頭(這個狀況下應該是受害者)一頓大餐,只不過大餐的內容可能這餐是對頭的煙燻烤右腿,下餐是對頭的薄片風乾左手臂,兩人還在用餐期間談笑風生。現代人,特別是美國人,要把肉處理到完全看不出是個動物的樣子才來下肚,也是類似的行為,只是粉飾太平的程度不同而已。

Looking at these beech mushrooms today cooked for lunch today, all a sudden I thought of a dish my grandmother described to me when I was really young. 

She said, you put some clean and seasoned live loaches with a block of cold tofu together, steam them. The loaches would go inside the tofu to avoid heat and you end up with a tofu with loaches inlayed beautifully. 

As a child, I found it interesting. Later I always though it’s such a cruel way to cook. Now I wonder why people can’t simply eat plants like mushrooms and leave those poor sentient beings alone. Not to mentioned that, a lot of these weird things chinese people eat don’t even taste good and you actually have to use very heavy sauce or seasoning to cover that meat’s original taste. This is even true for our regular animal protein–if you ask someone who has never eaten port, veal or fish in their life to give it a try, I’m pretty sure they’d find its taste stinking and horrible. This is a common experience for people restarting eating meat after being vegetarian for some time. So really, unlike sugar may be an inbuilt desirable taste for human beings, animal protein is more of an acquired taste. 

I’ve been watching the TV show Hannibal recently. Somehow I really feel it’s an alternative campaign for vegetarian diet. Once you become conscious of what you put in mouth, no matter how seemingly civilized the meal and table setting appears, you’d find it hard to swallow. Vegetarian is really the way to go. 

Portobello Sun Dried Tomato Pesto Egg 日曬蕃茄羅勒醬波特菇蛋

難得一個超愛美國的時候!這麼多蘆筍只要一美金,波特菇五毛錢一個。

Love asparagus!! And all for only $1 USD! Portobello mushrooms are 2 for $1. Definitely something I’ll miss when leaving US. 


昨天發明的菜,因為很好吃,今天早餐又做了一個:

油鍋爆香碎蒜粒,略煎大菇逼出水份,翻過來在菇的皺摺處抹上一層日曬蕃茄羅勒醬(日曬蕃茄、羅勒、松子、腰果、橄欖油), 打個蛋在上面,蛋半熟時鹽胡椒調味,翻面在煎幾十秒就可以上桌了。保證好吃,而且失敗機率極低!

I invented this dish yesterday because we have some left over sun dried tomato pesto sauce which I want to get rid of. It turned out so good that I made it for breakfast again today. 

It’s utmost simple: just briefly pan fried a portobello mushroom with a little oil and minced garlic to get the water out, turn the portobello and add some sun dried tomato pesto sauce (tomato, basil, cashew, pine, olive oil) and an egg on top, season with little salt and pepper on the egg when it’s almost done, and voilà! 

葡萄香日本紅茶 Grace Piece Tea

香港師兄那裡討來的日本紅茶,說是極為香甜,就飛鴿傳茶來了幾小袋。


一打開來,真的是撲鼻的香氣。像是蘋果,又像是水蜜桃,但又都不是。

想了兩分鐘才想出來,原來這熟悉的甜香,就像是小時候吃那種日本葡萄口味泡泡糖的味道!

細看了茶葉,不像是摻了果粒的那種歐洲花果茶。茶葉細細的,是比較像紅茶。(說明書說是印度大吉嶺的紅茶,發酵一次後就運到日本,在日本進行第二次發酵。)


然後試泡。因為量很少,就拿我的旅行袖珍組來泡。

出茶時間很快,要比一般紅茶泡的時間短。第一泡裡面那個泡泡糖的香氣非常足,第二泡(茶湯見上圖)果香就比較含蓄,顯出茶香豐富的好紅茶滋味。很耐泡,第五泡還是香氣足,而且非常強的回甘,喝下後,滿口生津,而且整個口腔都是那特殊的葡萄香氣。


(怪不得出茶時間短,葉子已經弄碎了)

下一袋我決定用冷泡的方式,因為那個香氣和細緻的茶葉應該會非常適合泡冷茶。


說明書上說第二泡是用日本溫泉區的水發酵的,於是產生了特殊的muscat葡萄味。這個二次發酵聽著還挺玄的。

下次回上海一定帶一袋到茶城給大家嚐嚐。

My Idiot-proof Bread Recipe 歐式雜糧麵包(免揉麵)

IMG_0750

自從在朋友家吃到這個麵包之後,就覺得實在沒必要在外面買那些不知加了什麼亂七八糟東西的麵包。因為這個麵包容易做得不得了,不需揉麵,什麼技巧和體力活都不需要,就只是把東西混合、扔進烤箱裡,現在覺得連上海的麵包機都是多餘的。尤其在這裡,美國人吃東西巨鹹,低鹽麵包的種類很有限,整個超市就只有一種。這個食譜是我改良過的,鹽只有原來的一半,比較適合我。

This is like an unbelievably easy recipe for making bread—no kneading, no nothing.Simply mix the ingredient and throw it into the oven, and voilà! It suits me especially since all American breads are way too salty for me except for the one and only low-sodium bread available at Sprouts. With this recipe, I can make all sort of breads of different flavors according to my moods. Having my Staub cast iron oven, I can even envision making this in places like India where I don’t have an oven.

Ingredients

1. 300g (2 cups) All purpose organic unbleached flour

2. 100g (2/3 cups) Seven grains organic wheat flour

3. 4g (1/2 tsp) sea salt

4. 2g (1/2 tsp) active yeast

5. 300g (1+1/3 cup) room temperature water

6. Wheat bran

7. Flaxseed meal 1/4 cups (optional)

8. Nuts or dried blueberry (optional)

Steps

1. Mix ingredients 1–5

I usually use 200g all purpose flour, 100g wheat flour, and 100g of my own mix of 6 grains (i.e. Barley, Brown Rice, Corn, Millet, Oats and Rye)

The optional items listed in 7 & 8 are really up to your own creativity. I have tried cinnamon powder with walnut, cranberry with pecan etc.

Simply take a big mixing bowl, place it on a scale, throw in all the dry ingredients, mix a bit, then add water, mix until it is smooth. Then cover the bowl with a damp towel.

2. Let the dough sit for 12-18 hours (for fermentation)

3. Shaping and 2nd fermentation: Dust a working area with flour, take out the slow risen dough and gently shape the dough into a round form. Place the shaped dough on the towel, dust the upper part with wheat bran, cover it with the rest of the towel and let it sit again. (The original recipe calls for a 2 hour 2nd fermentation, but I usually just utilize the 30 minutes of oven preheat time. Once I even got by with only 15 minutes preheat and 2nd fermentation when I was in a rush to go out.)

4. Preheat the oven for 30 minutes at 475F, including a covered heavy pot inside at the rack of the lower 1/3 part. (My go to pot is a 4Q cast iron Staub French oven. My friend uses a claypot.)

5. Take out the heated pot, place the dough inside, put the lid back on, and place the pot back to the oven and bake for 25-35 minutes, and another 3-15 minutes after removing the pot lid

6. lift the bread to a cooling rack and only slice it after it is completely cool, i.e. usually after 30min–1 hour

 

材料

1. 300g (2 杯)有機麵粉

2. 100g (2/3 杯) 七穀麵粉

3. 4g (1/2 茶匙)鹽

4. 2g (1/2 茶匙)酵母

5. 300g(1又1/3杯)室溫的水

6. 麥麩

7. 亞麻籽粉 1/4杯(選用)

8. 乾果或蔓越莓乾 (選用)

步驟:

1. 混合1-5的材料

   – 我通常是用200克的麵粉,100克的全麥粉,100克自己混合的蕎麥、糙米、玉米、 小米、燕麥、黑麥粉

   – 亞麻籽粉加不加都可以,其他口味可以換著做。我試過不錯的,是肉桂粉+核桃,蔓越莓乾+山核桃。

   – 拿個大不銹鋼盆,放在秤上,把乾的材料一一加入,然後稍微混合一下(這時就可以從秤上拿下來了啦)。之後再加水,攪到混合均勻就可以。最後拿塊濕布蓋起來,等它自己發酵。

2. 發酵12-18小時

3. 整形和二次發酵:平台上撒麵粉,拿出發酵好的麵團,稍微弄成圓形,放在本來蓋在上面的那塊棉布上,麵團表面撒上麥麩。二次發酵的時間,原來食譜說是2小時,但我通常就是預熱烤箱的30分鐘,有一次急著出門,只等了15分鐘也都沒問題。

4. 烤箱預熱30分鐘(攝氏245度,華氏475度),把鑄鐵鍋或砂鍋放在下面1/3處的烤架上一起預熱

5. 拿出烤箱裡的鍋子,把麵團倒進鍋裡,再把鍋子蓋好,放回烤箱裡烤25-35分鐘,開蓋再烤3-15分鐘。(我們家烤箱通常就是烤30分鐘,開蓋後再烤個幾分鐘,主要是看你想要表面多金黃和麵包多乾)

6. 取出,放散熱架上等涼了再切(至少半小時)

IMG_0526IMG_0527IMG_0531IMG_0524IMG_0522

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

美國版的不丹國餚: 起司辣椒加蘑菇

Staub and jalapeño version of mushroom emadatsi. I’ll just share my improvised recipe in Chinese so that Bhutanese can spare themselves from laughing at me 🙂

因為反響熱烈,把食譜分享給大家。

這是我的做法,不敢寫英文,怕被不丹人笑…
1. 蒜蓉爆香
2. 加入蘑菇或其他菌類(杏鮑菇也好,切大塊,要有口感的)
3. 加點鹽(其實對口味偏淡的我,不用加鹽單靠起司中的鹽分就夠了,撒點鹽主要是為了讓菌菇快點出水)
4. 菌菇類半熟時加去籽的辣椒段(因為我怕辣)
5. 蔬菜熟到自己想要的程度後,水也收乾到差不多時,加上起司,翻攪一下,讓起司均勻附在蔬菜上(起司切片會比較容易化開)
6. 然後就可以移到數個這種巴掌大的小瓦罐中,要吃的時候進烤箱烤一下就好。

(某人再三叮嚀我不要加水。我倒是偷加了點酒~)

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Food Inc. 食品帝國

Food Inc.  An amazing and startling documentary. A friend forwarded me this 2 years ago and I finally watched it on Hulu. Wish I did that earlier. May all be healthy and kind to animals.

朋友兩年前就轉給我看的紀錄片,拖到昨天才終於看了[汗] 早看就好了。

願大家身體健康,善待其他動物。

***

震撼全球的紀錄片-食品帝國

在美國你可以花一塊美元買一個漢堡填飽肚子,但為何卻無法用同樣的價錢在超級市場買到一顆青花菜?

為何食物提供商可以把價錢壓得這麼低?

而到底又是為什麼現在水果都已經沒有在分季節,夏天也可吃到冬天的水果?

為何現在生的馬鈴薯會比速食店買的薯條還貴?

美國現在出生的兒童早期得糖尿病是1/3,貧窮人家得到的機率快1/2,因為只能買漢堡填飽肚子。

這部紀錄片揭露了美國食品業許多不為人知的內幕。

美國知名人士歐普拉看完知道吃的食物是如何被生產出來之後,在節目說以後不吃速食店的漢堡,馬上被畜牧業跟食品業提告,前前後後花了6年時間跟100萬美元才勝訴。

美國大的食品公司平常也僱用很多律師,只要侵害其利益,不管能不能勝訴,先告再說,歐普拉就是很好的例子,一般人沒有麼多時間跟金錢去打官司。而食品公司的提告的對象一般是農夫,不是歐普拉之類的人士。

為了供應全美速食業者所需的漢堡肉,牛隻的飼養方式早已走出田園詩那幅三三兩兩悠閒的在草地吃草的狀態,而是擠在陰暗的工廠裡,站在深及膝蓋的糞便中,吃著玉米為主的飼料。

只是原本食草的牛轉變飲食習慣後,胃裡的埃舍利希氏大腸桿菌數量激增,這些包在漢堡肉裡的大腸桿菌會導致人類生病。

最近歐洲爆發的出血性大腸桿菌就是這個病毒,影片中無法預期的後果,片中2歲小孩就是吃了速食店收汙染的漢堡2天就死了。

簡體版: http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/r5AG1ywUq6I

繁體版:食品帝國片頭 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsmZbRoyme8&feature=related

食品帝國_速食魅力無法檔1   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vV1XpAPPps&feature=related

食品帝國_速食魅力無法檔2  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Suec4JHCRlA&feature=related

食品帝國.無法預期的後果  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wK8gd7Z4VUQ&feature=related

食品帝國.無法預期的後果2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2zmxtQUYrE&feature=related

食品帝國.玉米玉米我愛你 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yRfgnRPRFk&feature=related

食品帝國.便宜的代價 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpqA3JR3PS8

食品帝國.草中奧秘 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nS2DIx1gpQ&feature=related

食品帝國.草中奧秘2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AM0HdiNxRIk&feature=related

紀錄片「食品帝國」(Food, Inc.)

向世人揭示了日常生活裡廉價食品的生產過程,「這已經不只關於我們吃的權利,更是關乎我們說出真相的權利,和知道真相的權利。」

記錄片歷時6年,由導演Robert Kenner四處採訪拍攝而成。紀錄片同時也拍攝例如孟山都(Monsanto)這類食品企業如何經過打壓一般農民,來傾銷自家的基因改造種子,這些抗農藥、耐旱的種子大量進入農田。基因改造後的種子隨風飄散入附近農田,許多沒有使用孟山都種子的農家因此遭到孟山都提告,理由是侵害專利。許多農民無法負擔訴訟費用選擇和解。

種植單一產品破壞了生物多樣性,它潛在的危機是,當這些種子出現了天敵,導致大規模的歉收時,糧食危機便發生了。而首當其衝的便是貧窮國家的人民。惟有保持作物的生物多樣性,讓它們在自然的環境中演化和適應,才能避免這種全球性大規模的食物短缺危機。

另外這些基因改造的種子因為具有專利,因此使用的農民必須向孟山都等公司購買,問題是孟山都一手掌握了種子供應;另一邊不斷迫使農民向它購買產品,因此當它打算漲價時,農民也只能貸款買種子,這只會讓原本處於弱勢的農民不斷負債。

這部分紀錄片由於孟山都的勢力,所有各大網站有報導的影片都被封鎖,只有完整版才看得到。

錫金的蘿蔔泡菜 Radish Pickle from Sikkim

前天在別人家喝茶的時候,他們家尼泊爾傭人正好在做泡菜,看著就覺得是很好吃的東西,而且材料普遍。

抱了一小桶上一批做好的泡菜回來,果然好吃。這兩天餐餐都吃,愈吃愈好吃。

趕緊把食譜寫下,免得忘記。下次回上海一定做一批跟好友分享。

The other day when we were having tea at someone’s place, it happened that their Nepalese maid was making radish pickle. We got a small jar of this super delicious pickle from the last batch. And the recipe seems simple enough that there is no reason not to try.

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1. 蘿蔔連皮切條,辣椒依自己喜好的量也切條,陰乾,去掉表面多餘水份。
Slice radish (without peeling) and chili, and dry the surface moisture

2. 白芝麻炒香後,磨成粉。(終於有一個食譜是能利用到果汁機附贈的那個磨粉機了)
Warm the white sesame seeds in a pan to bring the flavor and machine-grind them into powder

3. 蘿蔔和辣椒放進乾淨瓶中,加上芝麻粉、鹽 、芥子油拌勻,封住罐子,每隔幾天把罐子上下倒一下就好。
Put the radish and chili pepper inside a clean jar, mix evenly with the sesame powder, salt and mustard oil. Seal the jar, maybe shake the jar a bit every few days to ensure the ingredients get evenly seasoned and fermented, and just wait to enjoy your pickle in 10 days!

原來做泡菜這麽簡單,所以實在沒必要去買外面加了那麼多防腐劑和其他化學添加劑的罐頭泡菜。

It would be wonderful to have home-made pickles free from preservatives and artificial flavors! Can’t wait to make this when I go home.

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P.S. Can also add garlic. Minimum marination for 10 days.

後記:可以加大蒜一起醃漬。至少醃個10天。

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2013/11 第一次試作,趕著離開上海,所以只醃了5天,但是已經很好吃了。加了薑絲、蒜頭、尖椒,还有一点花椒,用的是菜籽油。

First time making it. Didn’t have enough time so only marinated for 5 days but super delicious already! I also added fine shredded ginger and some Chinese peppers.

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