《三根本合修》和幕思唐的莲師寺 / Tsa Sum Dril Drub and Gehkar Monastery

有時候,一个小小的信息就能把很多点给连在一起,然後你就會看見生命裏發生的一些事情是如何相互關聯的。

今天,竹究滇津仁波切說到欽哲旺波傳下的《三根本》成就法的傳承來源,才知道原來桑傑喇嘛首次取出這部伏藏時,是在幕思唐的Ghekar的寺廟,恰恰就是我去年在幕思唐時住了一晚的蓮師廟。真是太有福氣了,也不枉我那時雖然搖搖欲墜地騎著馬,還努力背著法本上山,拿山上最珍貴食物,哈哈,就是一包小小的TWIX巧克力,做了個超精簡的薈供。當初只是想說在蓮師建的廟裏念念,會是莫大的加持,沒想到那竟然是蓮師封藏讓後人第一次取藏的地點啊!今年過年發願文下面附著的還就是在那廟裏供燈的照片,想不到過兩個月就聽到這座小小廟宇跟自己的淵源,是仁波切在我去 Ghekar 之前就種下了。

I surprisingly learned that the 3 Root Sadhana from Khyentse Wangpo (“Tsasum Drildrub") was firstly discovered by Sangye Lama in Mustang, as the 1st terma based on Guru Rinpoche as main deity and discovered by the 1st terton in Nyinma history. Not only that, it was in a Ghekar Monastery where Sangye Lama discovered it. I assumed there can’t be too many places in Mustang named Ghekar so it must be Lo-Ghekar. Lo is the name of the kingdom anyway.  How can you ever think of a terma discovered in Mustang back in the 11th century? And now it is in English and Chinese languages. Amazing! Really feel like prostrating to Thartse Khen Rinpoche today for his getting me a chance to spend quite some time in that precious holy place.

欽哲傳承的《三根本合修》真是太殊勝了,因爲:

- 宗薩欽哲仁波切是法主(這就已經很殊勝了)
- 首次取藏是由桑傑喇嘛在Ghekar廟附近的“馬頭明王之頸”峭壁取出,桑吉喇嘛是蓮師授記的伏藏師,也是寧瑪派的第一位伏藏師
- 是有史以來第一個以蓮師爲本尊的伏藏法
-第一個版本的傳承斷絕後,桑傑喇嘛的最後一個轉世蔣揚欽哲旺波再次取出,是爲再伏藏傳承。

也頂禮塔澤堪仁波切,讓我能進到廟裏晃蕩。

Ghekar要怎麽去,請參見下文的文末部份 / See the end of this text for directions to Lo-Ghekar:
https://bellachao.wordpress.com/2009/09/30/upper-mustang4/

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Upper Mustang 上幕斯唐 5 - Lo-Manthang, Nymphu, Chhoser Cave

Lo-Manthang (3720m)

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Lo-Manthang is the only living walled city of Nepal. Built in 1830 by the first king of Lo, Ame Pal, the wall is 2472 feet long and 26ft. high, has 14 towers of 40 fl. high along its periphery. During the reign of the Mustang Rajas, the towers were guarded by armed guards to defend the town from bandits and enemies. The only entrance to the town is through a huge wooden gate located to the east of the township. The city is divided into four traditional wards with names referring to shrine of four deities, namely Mahakala, Tara, Dipangar Buddha, and Maitreya. These wards take turn to perform various religious and social tasks of the town.

About 1100 Lobas (people of Lo) live in the 180 mud houses of the walled city, and surprisingly, they observe a form of caste hierarchy. As a result, mainly the Bista (the nobility and royalty of Lo) and Gurung live within the walled city while Ghara (black smith), Shemba (butcher) and Emeta (musician) mostly live in the settlement beside the Lo-Manthang River.

洛曼唐是尼泊爾唯一仍生活在城墻裏的城市,像是中世紀生活的重現--城墻、王宮、馬背上的生活。城是洛的第一個國王於1830年建造的,牆有2472呎長,26呎高,具有14座40呎高的城塔。在王權統治的時代(現在是民主統治,國王比較是精神上的代表),城塔上有武裝士兵守衛,對抗外敵或土匪。聽來好像很久遠的事情,也就上個世紀,當康巴人流亡到這裏時,也與洛的人起過磨擦,拿著槍跟國王嗆聲,不過後來畢竟是同族同文化的,很快就相安無事,去和“外敵”談判的還跟康巴頭子成了好友。進出城只有東面一個大木門。城內分爲四區,各以藏傳佛教本尊的名號爲名:瑪哈嘎拉、度母、彌勒佛等,各區輪流負責各種宗教和社區工作。

城內現在約1100人口,180戶土房子。這裏和尼泊爾其他地方一樣,有種姓階級制度,只有叫Bista的貴族和Gurung的住在城內,其他像是打鐵的、屠夫、樂師等,都算是低下種姓,只能住在城墻外。
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Livestock husbandry combined with agriculture is still the mainstay of the local economy. Seasonal migration for trade to the southern Nepal and North India, and barter trade with neighboring Tibet supplements household income. With the advent of tourism in Lo in 1992, few local people have also started taking up tourism as a new economic profession. I arrived at a time when people weeding in their farm land outside the wall. They are among the happiest people I have ever seen. The work is tough yet they were all working happily together with lots of singing and tea in between. When someone’s horse ran away, all the people on the road would try to help. Life may indeed be tough here but it doesn’t seem to strip people away from having fun in life.

Despite of growing tourism, so far they have been able to keep the traditional way of life quite intact. When I wanted to see people weaving, my guide easily found two family members doing it – his sister-in-law was weaving an apron and his grand aunt was weaving some textile to make pants. Fortunately I didn’t stay in a hotel but someone’s house. Every other morning I’d hear them whipping cream from the milk of a cow kept downstairs (ground floor of the house while people usually live upstairs), the remaining milk would be dried to collect chula (something like extremely hard cheese), the vegies I love (mustard) was likely picked from their garden somewhere…at the same time you can buy Pepsi, Red Bull, various Chinese cookies unheard of in Shanghai in all the shops around. And the crown prince even built a nice brand new library and nursery for the residents. So far they keep good balance between modern convenience and traditions. Maybe one day it’d be like Monte Carlo in Himalayas.
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經濟來源主要是畜牧及農業,冬季則到尼泊爾南部或印度北部做生意,還有跟西藏邊境的貿易貼補家用。這裏商店裏往往有些我在中國從來沒看過的餅乾糖果汽水類的東西,還有在旅程路邊荒僻的喝茶地方,常常會看見一種綠色鐵盒裝著的89/90壓縮乾糧,他們當餅乾吃,後來網上一查才知道是中國軍隊研發用來做飛行救急乾糧的,可惜一直沒機會去嚐上一塊。從1992年開放觀光以來,也有少數年輕人開始從事跟觀光有關的工作,像是嚮導一類的,特別是送去印度藏族學校的年輕人,英語比較好。

我到的時候正是田裏莊稼初長,家家戶戶忙著除草的時候。走在田裏,東一措、西一措人,各家選一天各自把田裏的雜草拔掉,有錢一點的會雇上幾個鄉親幫忙,田裏工作很幸苦,有年過七十的老婦人也自己在田裏做一天(因爲她兒子被我拉著四處游玩)。不過,他們是我見過最快樂的人。生活不易,但是大家高高興興的做著,田裏通常歌聲不斷,做一會兒還一起喝個茶。誰家有事,別人也都會幫忙,像是馬跑了,大家就幫著趕。

雖然觀光客人數在攀爬,但是目前為止似乎傳統生活方式還被保持的挺好的。像是我說想看人織東西,導游馬上就能找出家裏有兩人正好在織布-嫂嫂在織圍裙、姨婆在織布要做褲子。我住的地方也是幾乎每天早上就聽到拿牛奶打奶油(酥油)的聲音,牛奶來自於晚上睡在樓下的一頭牛,白天大概都放出去吃草,打完油的奶水煮一下後拿去晒就變成像是硬起司的奶渣;因爲我吃菜,他們就去自家不知在哪兒的花園摘芥菜來煮……每天都會看到很多新鮮事。同時,店裏却又買得到百事可樂、紅牛這些東西。這裏還有王子建的一座幾乎全新的圖書館和托兒所,環境好的不得了。交通能改善的話,繼續發展下去,倒是有望成爲喜馬拉雅山的蒙地卡羅。
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  • 3 monasteries inside the walled city 城內有三座寺: Jhampa Gompa, Thupchen Gompa, Chooede Gompa

Lo-Manthang’s culture is deep rooted in the religious sentiments of its people. The township abound with many stupas, mani walls and monasteries. Prayer flags flutter above all houses- conveying mantra/prayers to all corners of the world. The Lobas are exclusively Buddhists and conform to the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism after replacing Bon centuries ago.

Of the three monasteries, Jhampa Gompa is the oldest, built in 1387 and believed to be a replica of Ghangtse’s Jampha Gompa in Tibet. The 3-storied Jhampa Gompa is an exemplary piece of art. It amply exhibits Lo-Manthang’s great architectural depth of the past. The uniqueness of this Gompa lies in gold painted tantric mandalas entirely covering the interior of the wall of the 1st and 2nd floors. The main hall is painted with double register of mandalas interspersed with smaller mandalas. Due to the Sakya influence, many of the mandalas are Hevajra related. There is currently a Italian led team training locals to maintain the paintings. The sheer size of the Gompa itself is an attraction – 55 ft high, 150 ft long and 80 ft wide. One will be surprised to know that the wall of the Gompa is 5 ft and 4 inches thick!

洛曼唐的文化深受宗教影響,這裏隨處可見佛塔、瑪尼牆、寺廟。經幡飄揚在每一座房子的屋頂,將祈禱隨風傳送到世界的每一個角落。幕斯唐王國的人都是佛教徒,以薩迦傳承爲主。

城裏有三個寺廟,最老的是強巴寺,第1任國王建於1387年,據信是仿照江孜的一座強巴寺建造的。三層樓的強巴寺從建築的外觀就很值得一看,大氣龐然–廟高55呎,長150呎,寛80呎,廟牆就有5呎4吋厚,真的是王室氣派。寺廟最特別的是 一、二樓裏面的墻上畫滿了精細的壇城圖案,由於薩迦傳承,所以很多是喜金剛的壇城;成百上千個壇城,每一幅都是精品。去的時候有一個意大利人領導的團隊,正訓練當地人修復壁畫,聽說他們已經做了很多年了,讓人欣慰的是逐漸訓練出一批具有技藝的當地年輕人。
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Thupchen Gompa is the 2nd oldest Gompa, built in the early 15th century by the 3rd king of Lo. Despite being smaller than Jhampa, Thupchen is equally rich archetype of Tibetan art. The main hall Dukhang has beautiful ceiling and wall paintings painted of natural color and gold and silver paints, bearing various images of Buddha and other deities. The wooden beams in Dukhang carry Buddhist mantra engraved in it and the ceiling has beautifully placed rafters. Walking around the high ceiling hall with gigantic wall paintings somehow reminds me of those Egyptian temples down in the southern Nile.
圖千寺是第二老的寺廟,為第3任國王建於15世紀初期,雖然比強巴寺小,但是建築亦頗具藏族特色。主殿非常高,壁畫是用金、銀、天然礦石所繪 的巨大佛像。走在高高的大殿,看著巨大的壁畫,讓我想到尼羅河南部的埃及神廟。洛曼唐真是個神奇的地方,一下想到蒙地卡羅,一下想到埃及,偏偏又是如此的西藏。

Chooede Gompa presently is the main Gompa of Lo and also the center of religious activity. It was built in 1757 and now under the leadership of the crown prince. It is the only gompa with residing monks and also a school for little monks. This gompa houses beautiful Thangka and images, including Mahakala and Vajra Kilaya (the main deity of the Tenchi festival). Tenchi is the most popular festival, literally meaning “prayer for world peace” in Tibetan (Tempa Chirim), lasting for 3 days usually in May/Apr with activities including religious dance drama depicting the killing of a demon, seed sowing ceremony for good harvest, monk’s dance and prayer for a prosperous New Year, huge thangka hanging here etc. In the gompa, there is also a small museum in the monastery housing various ritual objects collected around Mustang.
確德寺是現在洛德主要宗教活動中心,建於1757年,現在由王子領導,是唯一有僧人居住、還有小喇嘛學校的寺廟。廟裏有漂亮的唐卡,特別是瑪哈嘎拉和普巴金剛的,普巴金剛是當地”天企節“的主要禮敬對象。“天企節”是幕斯唐的主要節慶,藏文是祈求世界和平的意思,共有三天,依藏曆日子在四、五月時舉行,節目包括金剛舞、求豐收的慶典、晒大唐卡等。在確德寺還有一個小博物館,收藏幕斯唐各地的文物,值得一看。
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  • Palace 王宮

The Raja (king) and Rani (queen) live in Monkhar – the four storied white-washed palace located in the middle of the town. The palace was believed to be built by the first King of Mustang in the 14th century. The present Raja is his 22nd descendent. It is possible to request to visit the Palace. Just remember to present a silk scarf to the Raja if you get the permission.
王宮是國王、王后居住的四層樓高的白色建築,是由第一位國王在14世紀建造,那時候就有那麽高的房子還真是挺厲害的。現在的國王是第22任。可以請求進去王宮裏面看看(還真是難以想像國王得管這種小事,還好觀光客不是太多,不然煩也煩死了),不過得到允許的話,要記得帶一條卡達獻給國王,表示禮敬和感謝。
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  • Namgyal Gompa, Summer Palace and Ketcher Dzong at Chhunup 南嘉寺、夏宮

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Namgyal Choede Thupten Dhargyeling Monastery
 was established in the 15th century in the Ngor tradition. Namgyal houses the collection of four great monasteries in the surrounding Lo-Manthang, these four were founded in 1310, well before the Ngorchen’s birth. If permission granted, you should visit their Mahakala room. The monastery got revived not long ago with a new monastic school built for poor and unprivileged children in the Upper Mustang. When kids grow older, they would be sent to other schools for further education. This place is like the village center for people living around. I was sitting inside the Khenpo’s office, watching non-stop locals coming in to make phone calls, including a father asking his son studying in Pokara to “play less football and study more”.
南嘉寺建於15世紀,也是薩迦哦派傳承。從洛遠眺,可以看到處在一山頭上的南嘉寺,走路半個小時可到。寺廟獨特之處在於收集了原本在洛曼唐四周四個寺廟的文物,那些現已廢棄的寺廟初建於1310年,甚至在哦千大堪布出生前就建了。若能得到允許,瑪哈嘎拉護法室值得拜訪。南嘉寺本來亦已沒落,後來新來了一位堪布大力整頓,現在還蓋了一座小學收留當地貧困學童(大了再送到其它地方繼續就學)。現在的南嘉寺儼然是附近居民的生活中心,雖然在小山上,我坐在堪布辦公室裏,就見著駱繹不絕的村民進來辦事、打電話--估計電話不普及,我很好奇他們都說些什麽,就問了,剛好講電話的那個在打電話給他在波卡拉讀中學的兒子說:足球少踢,要多念書!不管種族、收入,父母能說的好像都差不多。

Not far away from Namgyal, in Thinker village of Chhunup, you can find the Summer Palace of the Raja. Ketcher Dzong is another place to visit, which is the 1st palace built by Ame Pal in the early 14th century. 南嘉寺附近不遠的聼可村有國王的夏宮。要進去參觀的話,得在洛曼唐就得到許可。附近還有一個碉堡是第一個國王在14世紀初期所建的第一座宮殿。
 

Nymphu (Nyphu)

Nymphu Gompa is half inside the cave, though after renovation, you can’t tell too much of the cave trace from the outside. Nevertheless, inside the temple, in addition to the chapel, there is an adjacent, neat cave for monks doing retreat.
尼阜寺是個一半在山洞裏,一半在外的寺廟,不過經過整修後,從外部已經看不太出洞穴的痕迹。倒是進去內殿後面,還有個相鄰的小洞,寺內僧人做閉關用,整理的整潔舒適,看了就覺得在那裏閉關很好。
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Chhoser is famous for its cave culture. In the past, a whole village lived in one cave and the 5-storied Jhong Cave (Chhoser Cave) with over 40 rooms is a standing proof.  秋瑟這個地方以洞穴文化著稱,過去曾有一整個村子住在一個洞穴中。現在供人參觀的洞穴進去後,就有五層樓,四十多個房間,當年也有整個村子躲進去逃避匪難的記錄。
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Further up from the monastery, there is another place with caves nowadays used by shepherds to keep goats in winter time. Unlike the Chhoser cave, the caves here were more likely used as monastery. In one of the cave, you can still see some damaged by beautiful paintings of mandalas and buddha images on the ceiling. In front of these caves, there were also three stupa ruins. The weathering exposed the numerous Tsa-tsa (mini stupas made of clay) and small buddha images inside one of the stupa. When we were checking those ancient sacred objects, one of them fell to me which happened to be a Virupa one, and it’s the only Virupa one as far as we can see. So this becomes a special place for me.
尼阜寺再往上走還有一個地方有許多洞,不同於秋瑟的居民洞,這裏過去應該是出家僧衆修行處,山洞崖壁前有三座已風化侵蝕嚴重的佛塔,山洞裏還能找到一個洞穴留有殘存壁畫的遺迹,從畫工看來,原來也是具有相當水準的作品。有一座佛塔外部崩塌到裏面的擦擦(泥土製的小彿塔)和小佛像都已經露出,我們觀看這些可愛的小佛像時,一個掉到我這裏,撿起來後發現是少見的畢哇巴像(其他以長壽佛爲主),而且看了一下只有這尊是畢哇巴,很高興,堪布說我可以拿走,不過我覺得這是尼阜人的文物,還是留在那裏讓以後去尼阜的人也可以見到可愛的畢哇巴。
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My arriving day happened to be the horse racing festival of Nymphu settlement. At night, there were 15 families gathering together singing, dancing and drinking the local beer ‘”Chang”. Nymphu Khenpo kindly got me into that private gathering. I was very grateful as they warmly welcomed me and continued their happy gathering. Later when most adults, both men and women, were all a bit high because of the alcohol, one guy came to me and said “we welcome you here, you can stay as long as you like…there are many families here, but only 15 of us gather every year. because we want to teach our children to know how to sing and dance these songs from our ancestors…” It was very touching, thinking of how they cherish their culture and strive to pass on to future generations. The lyrics of the songs are such classic Tibetan that my guide from Lo-Manthang said he can’t understand it. And some ladies were putting on antique dresses that they don’t know how to make anymore (their skirts a bit like Ladakh style but longer). This reminds me of Kyegu where, years after the culture revolution, no one knew how to do their traditional song/dances except one old guy and he single-handed help to pass that knowledge to other people so that their art became almost miraculously preserved. Same, in this tiny village in the Himalayas, people also treasure their own culture so much.
到尼阜的那一天,正好碰到村裏的人在舉辦賽馬節,說是比賽,其實更多是大家一起騎馬到一個約定的地方吃吃喝喝唱唱跳跳。晚上,聽說有人聚集在某一家在唱歌,好心的堪布就幫忙安排我去那裏看熱鬧。他們人都很友善,雖然莫明其妙來了一個外人,當自己人一樣地給我地方坐、吃、喝,然後繼續唱歌、跳舞、喝自醸的“羌”(青稞酒)。喝到我覺得大部分人(包括旁邊坐的老太太們)都微醺了,主人家有一位會講英文的男子過來跟我說話,說歡迎我加入他們,然後叨叨叙述說村子裏很多戶人家,但是就他們這15家人年年賽馬節時聚在一起,因爲要讓祖輩傳下來的文化流傳,小孩子可以在這個時候學會這些歌舞,然後代代相傳,說的很感人。不知這十五家人是不是最早來此定居的一批人,我的嚮導說他們唱的歌是古老的藏文,他(來自洛曼唐)聽不懂,還說這些尼阜婦女身上穿的漂亮裙子都是祖先傳下來的,現在已經不知道怎麽製作這些帶有反光變色的毛料織物了。的確,尼阜婦女的傳統裙子跟一般藏裙不太一樣,有點類似拉達克的,但是更長些。幕斯唐這一路過來,每一個村鎮的服裝都有點不同。這個晚上讓我想到玉樹,當年因爲文革,嘉那活佛創作的歌舞都失傳了,還好有一位記憶力超強的老先生(現在八十多了),就他一個人記得那年輕時學過的歌舞,將它們又重新教給玉樹的人們,真的是千鈞一髮。總之,在幕斯唐見到這裏的藏族雖然相對貧窮,雖然生活日漸現代化,但是都還很珍視自己的文化,真的是很讓人感動。
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Walking along the major trading route with Tibet, Chhoser can be reached in about 3 hours from Lo-Manthang. 從洛曼唐沿通往西藏的貿易路綫徒步,約三小時可以到尼阜。

Snow Leopard Cave (4600+m)

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This cave was newly discovered in 2007. It’s a partially collapsed cave containing a collection of 55 paintings dated from the 12th to 14th century, depicting an unusual topic: the 84 mahassidhas. Unlike the murals in the monastery, the Mustang cave paintings reveal a strong Indian influence. The access to the cave was once difficult but the locals have made tremendous improvement with rope etc. to help the tourists. Still, be prepared for a hour of good walk after leaving your horse.
雪豹洞(當地人叫的是另一個名字,不過現在想不起來了~)是在2007年才發現的。半塌的洞裏有55幅12-14世紀的壁畫。獨特之處在於畫的主題罕見,是84大成就者,而且畫風具有强烈的印度風格,跟印度阿姜塔相似,非常的特別。之前到雪豹洞的路非常難走(冬天是拿著冰橇上上下下的),現在當地人修了一條比較好爬的路(某些地方要有些膽量就是了),下去的地方還弄了一條纏有牛皮的鐵索,所以已經大幅改善,就是從下馬的地方還得再爬上一個多小時。
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Upper Mustang 上幕斯唐 4 - Tsarang, Lo-Gekar’s Padmasambhava Monastery, Luri Cave Monastery

Mustang map 440-mustangmap Mustang%2000%2001%20Mustang%20Trek%20Route%20From%20Google%20Earth
It’s so hard to find a good online map of Upper Mustang. One is missing places, one is completely letting go of being proportionally referable. Anyway, after leaving Kagbeni(2800m) and heading towards the north, you will pass by Tangbe, Chuksang, Tsaile (3050m), Samar(3660m), Syangmochen(3820m), Ghilling(Gerlong in Tibetan), Ghemi(3490m) and reach Tsarang(3650m), the old capital of Mustang. For the locals, typical trip by horse is to stay a night in Ghami and then Lo-Manthang(3720m) on the 2nd day; they can also do Jomsom-Lo Manthang within a day if really needed, ~17 hours ride. For tourists, it’s recommended to break the trip into 3 days, i.e. one night at Samar and then Ghami or Tsarang. Both Samar and Ghemi has a good guesthouse, didn’t see any in Ghilling, Tsarang plenty. 很難找到好的地圖,不是缺東缺西,就是不成比例。總之,從卡貝尼(2800m)進入上幕斯唐往北走,會陸續經過湯貝、裘桑、才立(3050m)、薩瑪(3660m)、香嫫晨(3820m)、吉凌(藏人一般稱”給巄”)、給密(3490m)然後到達幕斯唐的舊都:擦壤Tsarang(3620m)。當地人騎馬通常是從Jomsom到給密停一晚,再往北走,真的趕路的話也有人當天可以到Lo-Manthang的,不過那要騎上17個小時。觀光客的話,建議在薩瑪停一晚,再翻個山到給密停一晚,再到Lo。薩瑪和給密都有住的不錯的旅館,吉淩比較沒看到什麽可住的地方,到了擦壤和現在的首都Lo-Manthang就到處是住處了。

Tsarang (3650m)

“The name Tsarang is derived from the Tibetan word Chaptrun Tsetrang (cock’s crest), the crest being the narrow rocky ridge upon which the castle stands. The village is incredibly rich in cultural heritage as it harbors numerous huge and ancient Chhortens and Mahnes (mani). The huge Chhorten gate (24 ft. high) roses starkly in contrast to the crumbling palace in the background. Narrow streets punctuate adobe houses, their roofs stacked with precious firewood. Most of the houses have a chapel housing the family shrine, ritual objects and sacred texts. Tsarang is a well-watered and a far greener place of Lo Tsho Dyun, with gardens and neat white washed houses and thriving Populus and Salix trees. It is a maze of field and houses separated by stonewalls at the top of the large Tsarang Chu Canyon. The huge, five storied, white Dzong (Tibetan style fortress) and red monastery are perched on the edge of the Kali Gandaki gorge at the eastern end of the village.

In the past, Tibetan salt from distant lakes north of the Tsangpo river, was bartered with wheat, barley and rice grown in the fertile southern valleys of Pokara and the areas around. Traders from Tsarang  to travel with herds of Yak, Dzo, goats and even sheep carrying grain to the centers on the Tibetan frontier. Ekai Kawaguchi, a Japanese monk stayed for 9 months here on his way to Tibet in 1899. The inhabitants of Tsarang are Bhotias (posses surname Bista, Gurung, and Biswakarma). They are also called Lobas (people of Lo). The population of the village is about 400 living in 83 households. The economy is mainly based on agriculture, livestock husbandry and seasonal migration during the winter season for business.”

擦壤這名字來自西藏話的“鶏冠”,因爲城堡所在處的石崖而得名。這裏文化遺産豐富,有很多古老的佛塔和瑪尼堆,入城的佛塔就有24英尺高。村內街道狹窄,居家漆成白色,屋頂堆放珍貴的柴薪。同其他藏族一般,家家戶戶都有佛堂。這裏算是灌溉水源豐富,因此遠較王國其他地區為綠,各家的花園和房子用石墻分隔,少見的綠樹成蔭。村子東面,在河谷邊聳立著五層樓高的前王宮,以及紅色的寺廟。村裏有83戶人家,共400人左右。

過去,西藏的藏波河北方來的湖鹽和南方波卡拉谷地的穀類進行以物易物的貿易,擦壤的商人就用牲口將穀物運至西藏邊境的交易中心。一個日本和尚河口慧海曾在1899年前往西藏時在這裏住了9個月。
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  • Tsarang Monastery

Thupten Shad Druo Darkeling Gompa (aka. Thupten Shedrub Dhargyeling Monastery) belongs to Ngor-pa sub-sect of the Sakya school in Tibetan Buddhism. The monastery is situated at an astounding location, built in 1427 by the Three Sangbos: Ngorchen Kunga Sangbo, the founding abbot of Ngorpa from Tibet; Chhyogel Ame Pal Sangbo, the first king of Lo; Kalten Chhewang, minister of Ame Pal. Ngorchen visited Lo region three times: 1427, 1436 and 1447 and he built this monastery during his first visit. At that time, Amepal offered Ngorchen a big land for farming to support thpisands monks. Within the monastery boundary, the main monastery included living qurters for the monks. This shrine depicts images of Sakyamuni, Meitreya, Dorje Midukpa, Abbot Ngorchen Kunga Sangpo and other deities along with 15th century frescoes of extraordinary details. It contains priceless collections of Thangkas and also the throne of Ngorchen, which may be the only one left intact in the world. It is believed that Tibetan Buddhism flourished in Mustang from this monastery.
廟屬於藏傳佛教薩迦派支派哦巴,座落在雄偉的峭壁上,村莊的最高處。由幕斯唐三聖於1427年所建:也就是哦巴創始堪布貢嘎桑波,建立幕斯唐王國的Ame Pal 國王, 和他亦對建立佛教不遺餘力的大臣Kalten。哦千大堪布在1427, 1436, 1447年三次前來幕斯唐地區,當時虔誠的國王供養了很大的土地以及金錢,以支持出家僧衆的生活,廟裏也建有上千名僧人的生活區域。廟裏有非常珍貴的唐卡,15世紀的精緻壁畫,以及當年哦千堪布的法座。藏傳佛教據信是在這座寺廟建立之後才在幕斯唐地區蓬勃發展。
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  • Tsarang Palace

Samdub Ghephel Palace is a five storied place built in ~1400 by the same three sangbos building the Tsarang monastery. The palace is located on a rocky hill near the monastery’s shadow. It’s said that the Queen of Ladhakh brought a statue of Buddha Jhowo made of sandalwood as a bridal gift when marring with with the king of Lo. The palace has 108 volumes of Kangyur texts inscribed in gold and another sacred Tibetan texts Ghetongba. Although uninhabited for the past 65 years, it is redolent with reminders of a bygone age. This was once the greatest library in Lo, and still has a superb collection of sacred text, their volumes kept between intricately carved covers and in one case inscribed entirely in golden leaf. This is the most beautiful texts I have ever seen, and what is really touching is that the villagers still arrange monks/nuns to recite this Kangyur once a year. In contrast, the armory boasts a rather bedraggled collection of weapons. A human hand is also displayed, believed to be the master builder’s. The image of Avalokiteshvara is housed in the golden chapel inside the Raja’s fort in Tsarang. It is said a small replica is also found in Lhasa’s Potala Palace. This manifestation of Avalokiteshvara was the tutelary deity of king Sangsten Gompo who unified Tibet in the 7th century.
王宮是座五層樓高的建築,由建廟的三聖建於14-15世紀,位在寺廟下方的一座山丘頂上。據說當年拉達克公主嫁來時曾帶了一尊檀木做成的世尊等身佛像過來。王宮內藏108卷《甘珠爾》和其他典籍。《甘珠爾》完全是由黃金書寫在黑色的厚紙上,整齊的藏字像是電腦刻出來一般,每一卷的頭幾頁還有彩圖,外面是雕刻精美的木板。這是我見過最美的經書,讓人很感動的是,雖然王宮已經65年無人居住,相當荒蕪,但是每一年他們還是會請出家僧衆讀誦一次《甘珠爾》。瑪哈嘎拉室中有些武器,還有一隻乾枯的人手,據說是王宮建築師的。
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Lo-Ghekar: Gar Gompa

Gar Gompa is one of the oldest gompa in the region, which stands solitarily on a hill between Tsarang and Lo-Manthang.  Dating from the latter part of the 8th century, it was built by Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche), the founder of Tibetan Buddhism. According to legends, the site became a holy place when a spring bubbled up where the saint’s tears fell. it is also believed that this monastery was constructed in order to avert obstacles created by demons in the construction of Samye Monastery in Lhasa. Padmasambhava visited this monastery and hid some texts (Terma) to be rediscovered by appropriate teachers later. Constructed over a shrine, it’s five rooms are decorated with intricate wall carvings, the best in Mustang, which have been maintained well with vivid colors, including Buddha images, 21 Taras etc. Inside the shrine, in addition to the Padmasambhava and some other deity statues, on the left wall closer to the ground, there is a self-arising Tara image.

This takes 3 hours walk or ~2 hour horse ride from Tsarang. No accommodation here.

嘎寺廟是上幕斯坦最老的廟之一,在擦壤到Lo-Manthang的路上的一個小山上。是蓮花生大士在八世紀末期所建,為當年爲了鎮壓惡靈完成桑耶寺的建造,而在西藏邊境建造的一批邊境佛寺之一。蓮師曾親訪此處,埋下伏藏。廟有兩個主殿,外面的壁上是保存良好的彩色石刻佛像和21度母像,雕刻細緻,是幕斯唐最好的。內殿立有蓮師像和其他本尊、喇嘛像,在面對佛像左方墻壁靠地面處,還有一尊自然浮現的度母像,是比較最近的顯現。

從擦壤過來要走三個小時,或是騎馬兩個小時,沒有住宿的地方。
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Luri Gompa (4005m)

Luri Ghang Gompa is the most extraordinary cave monastery in the region tucked high into the cliffs near Ghara village. It is situated inside a cave with numerous delicate frescoes. Being built before the 15th century, the front wall eroded but inside the cave, it remains as one of Mustang’s most tantalizing mysteries. It has a huge stupa inside the cave. Luri is unique as no other Chhorten of this age and quality have existed in man made caves. It houses many images and statues of Guru Rinpoche…Surrounded by sharp tapering cliffs, the meadow below is cast upon a bizarre shadow. Access is intricate as one has to walk trails on eroded landscape climbing uphill and crossing gorges spanned by bridges made of tree trunks. The entrance to the chapel is lead by a man made tunnel leading to an old ladder. Only two of the interconnecting chambers remain intact nowadays. The first has the orientation of a traditional Tibetan chapel with an alter, statues and Thankas. Beyond is a domed shrine room, filled so completely by a large Chhorten that only a narrow path way remains for pilgrims/visitors to walk around. Every available surface on the Chhorten is white washed and decorate with frescoes. The walls around the Chhorten is also beautifully painted.

It takes 4-5 hours walk from Tsarang, so only possible on horse for a day trip. Alternatively, what I did is visiting Luri after Lo-Manthang, stay a night in Dhi. The key was held by a teacher teaching kids in another small monastery below the Gompa. Anyway, it’s always wise to hire a local person so that they can help figure out how to get hold of the key.

盧立寺靠近嘎拉村落,是幕斯唐區最特別的一座洞穴寺廟,屬於竹巴嘎舉,建於15世紀。特殊之處在於還保存下來的兩個洞,其中一個裏面有一座大佛塔,人基本上進去就只能沿著塔繞一圈。除了佛塔上有繪畫外,四周墻上亦繪滿了頗有現代風格的花朵,要是能照相的話我大概會回家找間房間也畫起來。外面一間房間就是比較一般的藏寺佛堂,其他房間都已損毀。幾年前還有人來這裏閉關,但是現在這個寺廟已經沒有住人了。上去的路要爬一段,看起來很恐怖--樹幹過峽谷、陡峭,但是其實還好,路程很短。

從擦壤過來要走4-5個小時,所以要當天往返的話,就要騎馬。或者像我是從Lo-Manthang下來的時候過來,到”狄”住一晚,比較不趕。鑰匙是在對山腳下一座小廟旁邊的小學老師手裏,不過這些都不太一定,老師在不在也很難說。最好是找個當地人帶去,他們可以一路問鑰匙在哪裏。
090710 Dhee-Luri 029 090710 Dhee-Luri 027
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Lower Mustang 下幕斯唐 3 – Muktinath, Jharkot, Jhong

從卡貝尼往東邊溯河而上依序是河流右邊的Jharkot(Jarkot)、左邊的Jhong(Dzong, Jong or Zhong)、右邊的Purang和Muktinath。

Jharkot 札蔲(~3500m)

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Different from the golden buckwheat crop in Kagbeni, here in the field is green highland barley as the main crop, and wild flowers in all colors. 六月下旬的這裏田裏是綠油油的滿穗青稞,遍地是野花――紫的、黃的、粉的。090624 Jarkot 132 090624 Jarkot 182 090624 Jarkot 190Jar Monastery is also very old, belongs to Sakya tradition with around 20 monks and a Tibetan herbal medical school. The monastery is situated on the top of the village with a good view of the Dzong Monastery on the other side of the river and the Muktinath valley.  “札“寺廟 有幾百年歷史,薩迦派的,大概二十個出家衆,附設一個藏醫學校。寺廟在村莊最高點,可以遠眺往河谷對面的“宗“寺廟。
090624 Jarkot 104 In all lower Mustang, you can find very delicious seabuckthorn juice, which is made of seabuckthorn berries in August, full of Vitamin C and A (higher containt than organge and carrot respectively) and other minerals. Most importantly, this plant from around the Himalaya and Central Asia has hardy properties and deep rooting, therefore, it is now chosen as a pioneer specie to grow in degraded land and areas where they want to re-establish forest cover. 這一帶都有一種叫Seabuckthorn(沙棘果)的果汁。是八月份時采收的莓類水果做的果汁,紅黃色的,不錯喝,維他命C含量比橙類高,維他命A含量比紅蘿蔔高,最重要的是鼓勵當地農民種植有利水土保持。在Kagbeni時碰到幾個地質學家,說喜馬拉雅山每年還增高3-4公分,Mustang在山北,屬于崩裂地帶,所以我想在這裏多種樹是很重要的。

Jhong/Dzong 宗(~3500m)

Dzong hosted a ruin of old fortress. It only took less than 20min to come by horse from Jarkot, across the river. 宗是藏文碉堡之意,從Jharkot騎馬過河過來只要不到20分鐘,不過馬走在下下上上的狹窄石頭路上,騎者要有點技巧。
 090629 Dzong 102Dzong Monastery is built on top of the fortress ruin, about 3520m high, with 500 years’ history, also belonging to the Sakyapa school. It’s the largest monastery in the Muktinath Valley, with 26 monks, including 11 young ones- the youngest is only 7 years old. The monastery houses nice fresco, maintained in relatively good shape. Dzong is slightly higher than Jharkot, though the two monasteries are almost at the same height opposite each other from the two side of the Jhong Khola Valley.  In the few days I am here,  the weather has been cloudy most of the time. Clouds hover about the mountains around, at the altitude of the monastery. It is such a luxury to sit on top of the monastery, in the clouds, daydreaming. 宗寺廟建在原來碉堡的遺迹上,有五百年歷史,也是薩迦派的,廟雖不大,卻是Muktinath谷地這一帶最大的寺廟,有26名僧侶,包括十來多個小喇嘛,他們平常也去公立學校上課,鄰近還有一所尼師的廟。廟裏有古老的釋迦牟尼壁畫,部分壁畫是經過新近修復的,像是四臂觀音等,因爲時有游客前來,有些沒有灌頂不能看的壁畫(護法、喜金剛等)就被用簾子遮了起來。宗寺廟有3520m高,在這裏的幾天都是雲霧彌漫,雲朵籠罩在四周環山中,差不多廟的高度,坐在廟頂發呆很舒服。這裏氣溫明顯比Jarkot低。090629 Dzong 081 090629 Dzong 099廟下方谷地有一片綠色的小樹林,林內開著很多像是桔梗的白色花朵。There’s some nice bush under the monastery.村民歡迎仁波切的隊伍――估計又是全村出動了吧。The locals went welcoming Rinpoches. They went to Jarkot to greet Rinpoches and escort them all the way back with continuous singing along the way. Local monks gathered at the entrance to Dzong with full display of banners and musical instruments. 090627 Dzong 013 090627 Dzong 025

Muktinath(3800m)

Muktinath is the most important holy place for Hindu and also a holy place for Buddhists. The area is kepy within  a wall. The most important sight inside is a temple with 108 springs which are believed to be able to cleanse all the sin after bathing with all of them. Extremely refreshing and cold water, just wonderful for us when we arrived at about noon time. I enjoyed the water so much that I came back on the next day.    木克定(Muktinath)是印度教在尼泊爾最重要的聖地,也是佛教聖地。整個區域環繞在白墻中,上去得爬一段小階梯。裏面最主要的是一座具有108孔泉水的寺廟,人們相信只要能用這108泉洗滌過,能凈除一切障礙。水是冰山雪水,清凉無比,我們到的時候差不多是中午,正好降溫,玩的不亦樂乎;第二天我又回來玩。
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There are also a few other Tibetan monasteries in side, one of them houses the famous eternal flames. There used to be three eternal flames: one on the rock, one on the water, one on the sandy earth. Now the sand one is gone.  裏面還有其他幾座藏族佛寺,其中一座殿內有三個著名的“萬年火”奇觀:一個是在石頭上有持續燃燒的火,一個是在水上有持續燃燒的火,一個是在砂質地面上的不滅火。應該是地面正好有易燃瓦斯類冒出,不過一切因緣具足能就這樣燃燒著,也是一大奇景。不過看這奇景得蹲在地上看,現在地上的那個已經沒有火了,還有兩個可以看。

To the east of the eternal flames temple, there are many stupas and a small hole on the round where you can hear some sort of underground spring or wind sounds. It’s said that Mandarava (Padmasambhava’s consort) passed here before and was offered Tsampa (a type of tibetan food made of roasted barley flour); ever since people can continue to hear that tsampa making sound here.     往東邊走有很多小佛塔的空曠地方,還有一個小小的地洞,俯身側耳聆聽,可以聽到底下泉水還是風聲流過的特殊聲響。當地人說這是當年曼達拉娃佛母經過這裏,肚子餓,他們做糌粑供養,之後就一直有那特別的聲響。

I was somehow down in Dzong, suddenly missing Rinpoche a lot. But it was completely revived when reaching Muktinath.    前兩天在Dzong時,無端地心情不好,很想念仁波切,一來Muktinath就好了,心很清明安樂。

There is no hotels allowed in Muktinath. Purang is the place to stay where you can find plenty of hotels, restaurants, a place for Internet, and a pretty new monastery (Tsechen Kunga Choeling Gonpa)with nice wall paintings.    住的地方在稍稍往下一點的Purang(Ranipauwa)。有座頗新的廟,壁畫很好;街上遍布旅館餐館,還有個可以上網的地方。

Singing in Jharkot: Tibetan style with Nepalese flavor 幕斯唐的民歌像是帶著尼泊爾風味的藏歌

Click for more pictures 更多相片點入 http://cid-12c681d04f03de08.skydrive.live.com/embedphoto.aspx/Nepal%e5%b0%bc%e6%b3%8a%e5%b0%94/090624Jarkot243.jpg (Nepal photo album @bellachao.spaces.live.com)

Lower Mustang 下幕斯唐 2 – Kagbeni, Tiri

Kagbeni (2840m)

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Kagbeni(卡貝尼)是外國旅客進入上幕斯坦之前的最後一個點,在Jomsom北方,處於兩河交流處,一條是南北向的有名的Kali Gandaki(河裏可以撿到海洋生物化石的),一條是東西向、從東邊的Muktinath流下來滙入Kali Gandaki的河。據說,Kag在藏文的意思就是河流交會處,beni是尼泊爾文的同意字,加在一起就變成這裏的地名,不過一般藏族好像真的只說Kag。可能是我在這裏前後待了一周的時間,覺得Kagbeni就像是在下幕斯唐的家,這裏依山傍水,也沒幾戶人家(估計百戶吧,很多老房子是沒住人的,所以實在不好說),在鎮上走個幾天,很快就認識些熟面孔。住的地方在幕斯唐算是很好的,吃的也很贊,沒事就在外面走來走去,總是能有新鮮地方、新鮮事。我也不是唯一喜愛這裏的人,碰到一對美國來的夫妻,說他們每年都來這裏住個幾星期,到處走走--他們那個走是真的很能走,有一天傍晚碰到他們,他們走到Marpha又走回來,一天走了20公里。Kagbeni is the last settlement before entering into Upper Mustang. It’s in the north of Jomsom, at the junction of two rivers: Kali Gandaki flowing towards the sourth as the main river and another smaller one coming from Muktinath at the east. I was told that “Kag” means confluence in Tibetan and “beni” is the Nepalese word for confluence, so Kagbeni is like adding two words together.This is the coziest place to stay in Lower Mustang. Here you can have great view of snow capped mountain and the rivers, comfortable and very inexpensive guesthouses to stay, food is good, daily necessity can be purchased without a problem (though Jomsom is the better place for hiking gear), Internet availability (though I have never tried), extremely friendly and helpful people, very convenient location to walk around (to villages in the Muktinath valley, to Jomsom). I met an American couple who come here for weeks every year and one day they walked all the way to Marpha!090621 Kagbeni 041 090617 Kagbeni 001 090614 Kagbeni 110 I had such a great time here that my travel journal was only kept for two days then laziness took over. Therefore now after three months of the trip, I am still struggling to introduce this great place. Anyway, these are from my 1st day in Kagbeni:

頭兩天來時,還認真寫了日誌,後來就完全流於放逸懈怠中,所以才會現在這麽痛苦,去了三個月之後還沒有辦法好好介紹幕斯唐:

”手機信號不是很穩定,昨天通電話沒問題,今早完全沒有信號。廟裏還得派人來旅館叫我吃早餐。早上想到河對面的山頂上,過了個吊橋,一開始很害怕,後來就只覺得好玩,真的像寂天菩薩說的,心能够被訓練習於一切事。山路難行,基本上就是在一堆小石子中走出一條剛夠放上兩隻脚的路,走不好就可能一路隨著小石子滑到河底,現在雖然還不到雨季,但是水已經高到有兩個人騎馬過河時水淹到馬身體的一半,想想還是不敢冒險,遠眺一下Tiri就折回了。下午跟仁波切請教一些問題,收拾經書時包的實在太醜了,仁波切就拿去幫我弄,果然好很多。他們往往諸多方面很隨意,吃住什麽的都是落差極大,但是只要有關法的細節都很注意,一絲不苟。090615 Kagbeni 020  090615 Kagbeni 013Mobile signal is not stable here. Yesterday it was ok, while this morning no signal at all…There’s a suspension bridge to cross Kali Gandaki River. Initially I was quite afraid of walking on it, but after few minutes just found the fun of it. As Shantideva said, you can literally train your mind to get accustomed to anything. The path to go up the mountain overlooking Kagbeni and Muktinath Valley is however too difficult for me. It’s like walking on non-stop sliding pebbles. As the water is already quite high (saw two horsemen crossing the river with half of the horses’ body in the water) , I gave up the attempt climb.  June is the harvest season for Kag (they will have another harvest in the end of summer). Walking in the field of gold, looking at the snow-capped mountains, I can still remember my first sight of Kagbeni—was truely amazed by its beauty and thought maybe this is the Shangri-la!
6月時分正好是當地采收作物的時候,走在金黃色田地中,看著屹立不搖的雪山,想到車子開過來時心裏一直讚嘆這才是香格里拉啊。 090620 To Kagbeni 047  Dinner is done by two great cooks. Vegetarian noodles with pretty coriander flower sprinkles! and I love the mustard (“Sag” in the local language) here, it’s like the only vegie I live by. 晚餐是加德滿都廟裏最好的厨師煮的,好吃的素面上撒了紫色小花的香菜,還沒吃就覺得很幸福。090620 To Kagbeni 072

It’s windy here between 11am to 5 pm. Clouds her and there never stop changing so you get a unique view whenever looking at the mountains. 山區風大,固定11點到傍晚5點間狂風大作,一會兒這邊一朵雲,一會兒那邊一朵雲,任何時候看雪山都是獨特的景象。
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1. Farming works with buffalo? 仍然用牛犁翻土耕地 // 2. Collecting grains 打糓機 // 3. Picking in the field 拾穗
090614 Kagbeni 057 090614 Kagbeni 064 090614 Kagbeni 062Practical info: Plenty of decent places to stay. My recommendation are: 1) Asia Trekking House: rooms with excellent views facing Dhaulagiri and the fields plus the most delicious vegie momos; 2) Annapurna II: The new one offers brand new rooms; 3) something Red House: more traditional deco with owner’s private collection incl. a huge buddha statue said to be left by Khampa (Tibetan people from Kham area) when they fled China to here. Also, if you are going to Upper Mustang, you need to register in the tourist office here upon departure and return.

住的地方:很多,略舉幾家。1) Asia Trekking House-藏族開的,因爲不是旺季,又有當地人帶去,所以以一晚300盧比的價格入住。有衛生間與熱水的雙人房,感覺很像住進瑞士小木屋,窗口看出去就是Dhaulagiri雪山,其下是層層綠色山巒,山下是金黃色田地與河谷,美的像是在看一幅畫一般。這家的素饃饃也是超好吃的。2)Annapurna II -這家新的,房間很好。3) xxx Red House? 這家不太確定名字,是很有風味的小旅館,有些老外每次來都住這裏。裏面還有一個房間堆放了店主各處收來的文物,特別是一尊大佛,說是當年康巴人流亡於此時帶來的。我看著眼淚都快掉出來,逃命都來不及的時候,馬也不好走的路,是怎麼樣帶著這個大佛翻越喜馬拉雅山?!(是的,我的康巴情結又出現了)通行登記:離開Kagbeni往上幕斯唐時要在警察局旁邊的旅遊辦公室登記,回來時也要登記,這樣他們才確定你沒有超出許可證的日期。登記處有很多頗實用的此地區觀光旅遊信息。

White House Trekking at Kagbeni 小白屋步道

Across the Kali Gandali river from Kabeni, the so-called Golden Hill route leads to a small white house on top of the mountain (3510m). It took me almost 3 hours to go up and 70min to descend, so for experienced trekker I imagine it’s probably only one and half hour walk each way. It’s recommended to do this in the early morning as it gets windy since 11am onwards until 6pm in this area. Even just half way on the path, you can see all the snow capped peaks from Nigiri in the left to Dauhgiri to the right, and the overview of Kagbeni and the Muktinath valley. 這是我亂起的名字,因爲終點是山頂的小白屋(3510米),可以看到連綿雪山、Kagbeni全景和到Muktinath河谷。路不難走,只是過橋後要上到步道的路段壞了,抓了一個放羊的問怎麽上去,這裏人都很好,他也不知道,但是帶著我找了一條路上去(基本上就是山民憑著經驗往走上)。他看我太不行了,明明他走前面,我跟着走都可以走錯,還得回頭來拉我回去,最後拉著我走了快半個小時,送我到步道上才離去。我們上到一半時,我才發現原來好心人不是放羊的,只是路人甲,因爲我們兩個往上走,所有的羊羣都跟著我們往上跑,害得河谷裏放羊的得爬上來趕羊下去,那個放羊的必須爬的路又比我們走的險多了,畢竟是兩條腿的在陡峭山坡上要趕四條腿的,生活大不易~

所以我就着照片山上右邊微微可見的山路,從2800米的卡貝尼直直爬了近千米,到了山頂上累得只想滾下去。水也喝完了,又很餓,但是風又開始大了,不下去也不行,就直奔(上山三小時下山70分鐘嘿嘿)廟裏的厨房祭我的五臟廟。
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Puja 法會

Mustang people’s devotion is really amazing. I sometimes look at them and think people like myself brought up by modern education may never develop that kind of firm, unquestioning devotion. Those capable ones would come all the way to Jomsom to welcome and accompany Rinpoches back to their town, by horse, by mortorbike, or very few by car.  The rest just all dressed up, lined up along the way near the town, with flowers in hand and offerings in front of the hourses, singing etc.  In the ceremonies, they not only offers a lot of stuff to the Gurus but also 50-100 Rupees to every single monk/nun (i.e. at least a hundred). For the local income level (300-500 charge for one hotel room and not everyone has a hotel, and hotel only has business for a few months a year), that is really a lot! Even small kids can sit still for a long time in the initiation! 

初見幕斯唐人的虔誠,真的是很了不起。從迎接仁波切開始,是全村出動,能騎馬、騎車(一般人沒有車的,機車倒是有,插上漂亮的旗幟)的更是一早到Jomsom去。然後灌頂時候的供養布施,除了供養灌頂的仁波切(很好玩,除了錢財外,還有一袋袋的穀物實物,像是全家家當包得美美的搬來一樣),還會供養所有在場的僧衆,附近各地的出家衆會聚集來此,像Tiri山上的尼師就來了,當地人家都是每位出家人五十、一百的給,這樣大大小小算起來有百來人吧,一下就去了萬把元,就當地旅館一天才三、五百元盧比的收入來說,真的是很令人尊敬。

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There is also a special Four King Puja. In the end of the puja, local guys would bring out four tormas with cute 100 lights to the four directions of the settlement as offerings to the four kings, then another round of ritual objects to place in another four locations at the border of the settlement together wiith fire crackers, shouting and waving swords as if they were chasing something away. When they came back to the monastery, they (incl. myself) would be showered with water and flour when entering the gate. You can imagine the mess…flour plus water! 還有一項很特別的“四王”法會,是修法向所在地四方祈求太平的。有四個食子會被置放於鎮子的四方邊境,食子像是船,上面有百盞小燈火;然後還有四樣物品會拿到另外四個邊界地方,去的人一路放鞭炮、叫囂、揮舞刀劍,安放好物品後,再揮動武器吆喝一陣,再回到廟裏進大門時,廟裏的人會洒水和麵粉之類的,估計是去障。在外面跑來跑去的都是當地盛裝的男子,非常熱鬧。聽說這個四王法會,每年幕斯唐的國王也都會舉辦一次。

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School performance 才藝表演

The Kagbeni school hosted a performance event for Gyana Vajra Rinpoche, including singing, dancing, and comedy by the local students. Kids here are very talented, from an amazing hot dance by a 6-years-old girl, Tibetan folk dance, Nepalese dance to hip-hop dance. It’s especially impressive when you think of all these come from a place with maybe only 1000 inhabitants!某晚,當地學校辦了場才藝表演給來訪的智慧金剛仁波切。這裏的人都很有才,才一千人的小地方,有六歲小孩勁舞、藏族舞蹈、尼泊爾舞蹈、hip-hop、還有喜劇。
  

Tiri (Tingri)

Tiri is about 1-2 km to the north of Kagbeni on the other side of Kali Gandaki. It’s like a tiny oasis in the arid valley, with only 12 households and cows, horses, donkeys, mules, barley, cute little Mustang apples, apricots, vegies…a miniature of what you can find in Mustang. August would be the best seasons for the fruits.
Tiri(提里)在卡貝尼北方一、二公里處的河對岸。是一個小綠洲,總共就12戶人家,有牛、馬、驢子、騾子,種青稞、蘋果、桃子、蔬菜等等,夏天八月份時什麽都有。
090616 Tingri 003 090616 Tingri 029 090616 Tingri 063The day we went there, a family was having a Vairocana puja for their mother passing away last year. Their relatives from neighboring villages up to Muktinath and neighbors all came to help. A house full of people were non-stop busy preparing food for the monks, for the participants, and also 1000 gifts for friends and relatives of the family – Since there are only 12 families here, I assume their distribution coverage must span across all Mustang area and possibly beyond. So the whole morning all the guys were making these “gifts” on the rooftop while all the ladies were cooking lunch. After lunch, it was again the time to prepare the food – momo this time. So you see minimum a dozen of people making momo at any given time for a whole two hours. And all I have to do here is non-stop eating and drinking.去的那天是因爲有一戶人家去年女主人去世了,正在做一年的法會,請了薩迦派的仁波切和多位堪布修大日如來渡亡法。這裏的人都家族龐大,親友衆多,所以一家做法會,各地親友都會來幫忙(有一對姐妹花是從Muktinath來的),從早上開始歡迎仁波切等,供養早餐(瑪莎拉馬鈴薯、面餅、茶…),接著是早茶,然後有中飯,下午茶,然後修完法還有饃饃(蒸餃)。還要準備薈供品,是用糌粑類做的糕點,主人計劃做上1千份,分送各戶人家,鑒于這裏只有12戶人家,Kagbeni也了不起100戶,所以他們的親朋好友大概遍布上下幕斯坦;基本上上午男性親友都在屋頂做這個,女性親友都在樓下準備中飯。包餃子時也很好玩,隨時都有12個以上的人在包,這樣也包了快兩個小時,很費功。混在這裏就是沒停地吃與喝。 090616 Tingri 035 090616 Tingri 037 090616 Tingri 089 090616 Tingri 049So I actually skipped the breakfast – some sort of masala potato. But shortly after, someone brought me a bowl of noodles, and tea, and the most delicious Tibetan deep fried dessert I have ever tried. Then lunch came – a full Tali with all my fav vegies. Then Indian style dessert, fruits…After my short walk, momo came with soup and delicious dipping. Thinking back, thank god that I sometimes skipped breaky and dinner in Mustang, otherwise, I’d have had more kilo to shed now.先吃了一碗泡麵吧,還有全世界我吃過最好吃的炸麻花類的餅兒,配上茶;然後吃了一大盤飯菜,還有甜點,水果等;出去逛逛回來就是蒸餃(饃饃)、熱湯,饃饃的霑醬好像打了腰果進去,也是一級棒!還好接下來的日子我晚餐都盡量少吃,不然在幕斯唐會肥死~090616 Tingri 034090616 Tingri 070090616 Tingri 057090616 Tingri 091Right beside the village, there’s a Nyinmapa Monastery on the hill of about 100m high. It’s said to have 860 years of history though most of the buildings are new. The old Gompa was burnt down before and even the old one nowadays is relatively new, however, they kept some nice stone carving buddha images from the old Gompa. There are only two nuns looking after the place and kindly offered me some tea.

村子旁邊100米高的山頭上有個寜瑪的寺廟,號稱有860年的歷史,門口有些石板雕刻彩繪看來真的是歷史久遠,看守的尼師說是以前失火後從地下拯救出來的。這裏就兩位尼師在看管,很熱情的請我喝茶。
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Down the ani gompa, along the small stream and water pipes up in the valley, there are two caves about 200m high on the cliff, which should be used as meditatiion caves in the old days with some stone structure half covering the entrance. Unfortunately the road to the cave is damaged so I only made it to the half way , nevertheless, the veiw was great already. I also encountered a wolf in the valley, but it ran away quickly. Then further up is a small waterfall which is likely the main water source for Tiri. In Mustang, you drink mineral water and bath in mineral water :-)走下尼師廟,再沿著小水流和村民的供水管往上走,右手邊200米高處有2個洞穴,還有一個用石板稍微搭建的前人的閉關房,但是現在路已經被落石淹沒了,我試了一會兒,爬到一半,沒有堅持下去。不過坐在半山風景就很好,前人閉關的地方遠眺應該很讚。在這個無人山谷,見到了一匹狼,不過它沒有很喜歡我,飛快地跑掉了。再溯小水流往上,最後會看到一個小瀑布,應該就是村民的水源,來自高山雪水。在幕斯唐,喝的是礦泉水,洗的也是礦泉水。
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It’s the first time I tried riding horse. Someone cautiously held my horse on the mountain path so we ended up even more slowly than those walking on foot. In the afternoon we went back from the riverbed and they just let my horse follow the horse in front so some small progress for my horse riding learning.

今天試著騎馬。早上去時走山路有人牽著,走的比走路的人還慢。下午回時走河谷,跟著前面一匹馬,堅持不要人牽,有點進步,至少比走山路的人快些,涉水也很好玩。(說這話是六月時,只是踩踩小水,真正過河是走橋,後來水大了真的要騎馬過河就不好玩了)090616 Tingri-Kagbeni 002

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Lower Mustang 下幕斯唐 1-Jomsom, Thini, Marpha

Mustang – The hidden Tibetan kingdom / 喜馬拉雅山上珍寶般的西藏王國

In short, Mustang is a tibetan kingdom hidden in Himalayas in Nepal, with well-preserved culture and custom. The main reason is probably the fact that transportation is very limited – no road for vehicles (except for gigantic tractors may traverse rivers in spring time) so you either walk or ride horses, plus it’s restricted to foreigners so foreign tourists are subject to application and a $50/day charge.It’s mostly around 3000-4000m above sea level. Great mountain views but quite arid (not as dry as Ladakh though) and extremely windy in the afternoon. August-September is the best season to travel to the region though I quite enjoyed my June-July tour when people were busy in the field and hardly any other tourists around.Mustang maintains their distinctive culture, i.e. part of the Tibetan culture but with unique local style in language, clothes etc. All Lobas (Mustang people) are Buddhism. Because one religious king Ama Pal invited Ngorchen Kunga Sampo to teach three times in the region, most of the monasteries in the region belong to the Ngor subschool of Sakyapa tradition. It’s said that Padmasambhava was also here before heading to Tibet so there are also several holy sites of Guru Rinpoche. Mustang is also the place where the 17th Karmapa passed by when he was on his way fleeing to India. 幕斯唐在尼泊爾境內略爲偏西的北部,與西藏接壤,是藏族衆多王國中的一個,其實王國名叫“Lo”,首都是Lo Manthang,1793年一個英國人第一次去那裏 ,英文就幾經訛傳最後變成“幕斯唐”。幕斯唐分爲“上幕斯唐”與“下幕斯唐”兩部分。Lo王國當年勢力强大時曾經據有西藏西部的廣大範圍,後來變小,到今日主要是在上幕斯唐的部分。下幕斯唐的主要城市是Jomsom,可從Pokara飛到,不過大部分來此的老外游客是徒步走有名的Annapurna Trek 過來。上幕斯唐是藏族文化保存極好的地方,因爲處於敏感地帶,屬于限制區域,外國人要進入一天要交50美金(09年之前是70美金一天),而且必須是至少兩人以上的旅行團體才能申請。這裏交通不便,上幕斯唐只能徒步、騎馬、或是包直升機進入,不過景觀特別,而且藏族文化風俗保存良好,曾經與位在印度境內的拉達克王國的關係密切(聯姻等等的),許多文化深受拉達克的影響。這裏的藏族說的是自己的方言,服飾也和中藏略微不同,吃的倒是都差不多。由於藏傳佛教薩迦派諾巴支派的創始人諾千貢嘎桑波曾於13-14世紀3次應幕斯唐國王的邀請前來傳法,歷來幕斯唐國王都是虔誠的薩迦派信徒,因此這裏的寺廟大都是薩迦派,還有一個寺廟保存了當年諾千大堪布的法座,數百年來相傳至今,朝拜者駱繹不絕。由於相傳蓮花生大士入藏之前也曾來此,因此也有些寜瑪的寺廟與蓮師聖地;特別殊勝的是一個洞穴(Ranchun Cave Temple),據說是蓮花生曾閉關3年3個月又3天之處。此外,在2007年於薩迦派的尼阜寺附近發現了一些洞穴(Snow Leopard Cave),裏面有古老偏向印度風格的壁畫,壁畫主題中有非常特別的八十四成就者的畫像。當年十七世大寶法王去印度,也是取道此處。

Jomsom (2760m)

Jomsom is the first top to Mustang by air. The flight is highly recommended: 25 minutes between two snow capped peaks and the cost is less than 100 USD. The view is equally great no matter which side you sits as the plane is so small (2 seats per row) so it’s quite convenient to look at both ways.Jomsom(江森)是進幕斯唐的第一站。到Jomsom的飛機比加德滿都到Pokara的還小,只有兩排座位,很像東非搭的那個,往前可以看到兩個駕駛員的無門機艙。25分鐘的航程,穿越兩個雪山間,太壯觀了,不到100美金的機票真是太值了。
 090614 Jomsom 016 090614 Jomsom 017 090618 Jomsom 009 My first impression of Jomsom at 6am in the morning is that it’s so neat and reminds me of Disneyland and a pedestrian street in San Diego. The stone paved streets with horses to embarking on a long journey…it’s as if you step into a Western movie scene, except for that you can never miss the 8167m Dhaulagiri!Jomsom漂亮的像是Disney的布景街道。大塊石頭舖成的地面,兩旁低矮的兩層樓房子也是用石頭砌成,有些商店,門口掛的都是可愛的手寫招牌,街道整齊乾淨,偶爾有馬隊騾隊經過,完全沒有那種旅遊勝地的商業化氣氛,只有一個小鎮平實卻友善的氛圍。還有世界第七高峰的Dhaulagiri(道拉吉利峰) ,坐在旅館的餐廳就對望着,很是幸福。
090614 Jomsom 026 090618 Jomsom 002 090618 Jomsom 004 090618 Jomsom 008    在當地人家裏吃早餐,炸油墩(就是圓形中間劃上兩刀的油炸面餅)配上香到不行的洋葱煎蛋(完全忘了自己本來想吃素的~~這些人也真是的,等我吃了一口才跟我說這裏鶏蛋不算是素的。啊!!),當然還有好喝的奶茶。那家女主人肯定是做菜高手,一家四口人但是厨房裏整齊排列著三十多個鍋子;她女兒為中餐準備辣椒霑醬時,我跟在旁邊學習,其實不難,而且尼泊爾的辣椒醬好吃到我只要有看到就會加在所有的菜上。
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Jomsom雖然是幕斯唐地區唯一有機場的地方,但是市容不大,雖然大部分人信佛教,但是連個廟都沒有。鎮上原本有個放國王雕像的公園,現在被鎭民捐出來建寺廟,轉經的外牆已經好了,主殿才剛剛開始建。因爲是主要交通樞紐,走在路上可以看到零零落落的外國旅客,會來這裏的都是那種身材結實瘦削,一看就很能走的人;還有來自印度的朝聖者,因爲下幕斯唐的Muktinath是重要的印度教朝聖聖地,路上不時可看到一群著白衣、臉上彩繪、有時赤裸上身的“沙度”行者。

Jomsom到Kagbeni現在能通車,只要半個小時就能到,騎馬技術好的也是半個小時。Pokara大概海拔1000公尺,Jomsom和Kagbeni都是2800米左右。基本民生物資像是餅乾糖果、可樂、礦泉水、衛生紙、肥皂、洗衣粉、洗髪精、防曬乳……等等到處都買的到,但是Pokara的選擇明顯比較多。

Thini – Padmasambhava’s 5 body treasures 蓮花生大師五寳

In the village near Jomsom, on the other side of Kali Gandaki river is a monastery housed 5 treasures said to be left by Padmasambhava. The monastery was originally in Bon tradition but in the process to be converted into a Nyingma or Kagyu monastery. As of now, only the two main statues in the shrine hall are of Bon, all the rest fresco etc. are new according to Buddhism. The treasures are kept in a casket with keys held by 3 monks and can only be opened with the presence of the 3.Main 5 objects are: 1. a palm-size Padmasambhava statue which is said to bring great fortune to those seeing it; 2. a Padmasambhava wrathful statue; 3. a Yeshe Tsogyal statue; 4. his vest; 5. his shoe at the age of 14 (?). In addition, there are also his hair, a Vajra made by him out of meteorite (it’s said that the vajra was able to fly), a replica of the 1st wish fulfilling statue, a stone with finger traces as if were held in a fist said to be left by the Bon founder of the monastery and some other treasures.The monk can give a lot of details about history of each objects, but I can only catch some by very kind translation of TT Lama within very brief time in between intros. 090619 Jomsom 5 star hotel 008090619 Tini Padmasambhava 5 body treasures 008

在Jomsom往南不遠的河對岸的Thini村裏,有一間寺廟存有據說是蓮花生大士留下來的五個寶貝。原來是存放在附近另一個現已荒廢的寺廟,後來移到這間苯教的寺廟,不過他們正在逐漸轉變這間寺廟成爲佛教寺廟,所以現在除了中間兩尊主要塑像是苯教神祗外,其他壁畫等等都已經新繪成佛教的。寳貝放在一個層層包裹的木箱裏,鑰匙由三個和尚保管。

主要的五個代表蓮師“身”的寶貝:1、一隻手大小的蓮花生大師的塑像,據說見著吉祥滿願;2、一尊差不多大小的蓮師忿怒像;3、耶喜措嘉的塑像;4、蓮師的衣服,坎肩的那一部分;5、蓮師(大概是14歲)時所穿的一隻鞋子。另外箱子裏還有很多寶貝:蓮師的頭髮;一個金剛杵,據說是蓮師用隕石做成,本來會飛;一尊第一個蓮師像的複製品,說是一個西藏喇嘛做的,他把真的拿走帶去藏地,碰到很多障難,後來問卜打卦把正品帶回;一塊有像是握在手中的痕迹的石頭,是苯教創始人遺留下的……很多東西,記不全。保管的和尚每一件物品都有很多叙述,但是我只能在他介紹當中的空檔透過好心的喇嘛迅速翻譯,所以所知有限。頭幾個塑像看起來真的是很老很老的東西。

Marpha

Marpha (2670m) is about 1 hour away by foot in the sourth of Jomsom, right on the Annarpurna track. An alternative option is to take the local bus from the office opposite the Jomsom airport. It’s a small village by the mountain. The highlight is three monasteries and a retreat center built together, so harmoniously that I only realized they are actually different institutes when walking inside the compound. The people there are also very supporting to each other and even bring me to other monasteries when I get lost (this is something bound to happen to me at least once a day). I immediately like this small village because of this Rimey attitude in practice.  

瑪爾發在Jomsom南邊走路差不多一小時的地方,是安納普娜群山徒步路綫中的一個小村落。我去的時候日正當中,自然是懶得走,在Jomsom機場對面的車站搭上一班不知往哪里的車,開沒多久就到了。是個依山建起的小村子,很漂亮的是有三座小廟上下相傍在山腰,最上面建了一個華人的襌修中心,這幾個建築搭配的煞是好看,不往裏面走根本不會發現原來是不同機構,裏面的人也很好,你找不到路還會帶你往上走到別家廟裏,真的是實踐了不分宗派的精神。
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I arrived right before the tourist season so the villagers were painting those houses facing the main street – again, in unisonal colors. This main street is full of guesthouses, restaurants, and small grocery shops, all targeted on tourists. When I started walking, I thought it’d be really nice if the transportation towards Upper Mustang can be improved so that their lives can also improve with growing tourism. Yet after passing all these similar businesses for tourists, I start wondering whether it’s the only way to develop economics in Himalayas as obviously what is preserved in upper mustang villages seems missing here.  

村子很小,主要就是一條街,因爲觀光業好賺吧,主街上幾乎家家戶戶不是民俗旅舍,就是餐廳或小賣店。我去的時候正好是旅遊季節要開始前,街上的各店家們還統一顔色刷起了門面。上幕斯唐的村子要是也能交通發達,觀光業可能也會改善他們的生活到跟這裏一樣,但是想到街道都要變成這樣商業化(像是麗江)又有點可惜,到時很多傳統的買賣、生活方式就會慢慢消失了吧。 

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我與幕斯坦的馬兒 Horse Riding in Mustang (II)

67天:坐騎升級到LoManthang / Day 6-7: Major horse upgrade for Lo Manthang

Ghiling 告別大隊人馬,進行我的上幕斯坦12日遊――因爲外國人進上幕斯坦一天要50美金的稅費,所以我只申請了12天的許可證。

告別大隊人馬意味著沒有驢隊拖行李,沒有室友聊天,吃飯時不能在厨房撿自己喜歡的菜吃。

不過,慈悲怙主給了我一匹馬,我接下來的路程都不用換馬了。馬的藏文名字意思是黃色,“黃黃”和日前騎的那几匹馬真是不可同日而語。他的個頭比較大,坐在上面很平穩,簡直像是升級到奔馳(賓士)一樣。他頗有競爭性,帶我去Lo Manthang的人的坐騎比較小,黃黃似乎不太喜歡落在後面,往往自己小跑步跟在領路馬的身旁,不需要我操心讓它快慢,而且它自己會選比較好走的路走,不一定跟著前馬,選擇他覺得比較安全好走的路。他還有一點潔癖,有時在路上有小水流,別的馬踏著水就過去了,他一定要找個窄的地方跨過去,儘可能不弄濕馬蹄,很可愛。

I bid farewell to the group in Ghiling to continue my rest of the Uppper Mustang trip – since all foreigners are subject to US$50 / person / day charge for entering Upper Mustang, I only applied for a permit of 12 days.

Leaving the group means that I have to carry my own luggage (which is a lot), don’t have a roommate to chat anymore, and can’t only eat my fav veggies in the kitchen at meal time.

However, the extremely kind guardian gave me a horse for the rest of the trip and it turned out to be such a marvelous horse! His name is Yellow (in Tibetan) , much bigger than all the horses I rode in the previous days and it feels so stable to sit on it  “wow, this is like Mercedez among horses!” This thought kept coming to my mind throughout the day.

Yellow is also very cautious by nature. He usually picked a path which seems safer and smoother. Today, he also seems competitive as he didn’t want to follow behind the leading horse which is smaller than him, which makes my job easier as he would follow the other almost side-by-side by himself.

 

89天:金銀兩馬遊 / Day 8-9: A couple of horses in gold and silver

Lo的導游巴布騎了一匹新買的灰色馬,名字叫藍藍,黃黃很喜歡藍藍,一反日前不願屈居馬後的習性,乖乖跟在藍藍後面,連放他們在草地上吃草時,他們都形影不離。

黃黃是橙黃色毛加米白色馬鬃,藍藍是銀白色毛加藍黑色馬鬃,他們走在一起特別好看。

可惜藍藍在尼阜可能吃壊了,也可能是剛從西藏過來,水土不服,回去病了一天。巴布說他哥哥插了根針在藍藍鼻子裏,放出一些黑血後,它才好些,所以我們去Luri的時候,他只好換馬。

My guide from Lo Manthang, Babu, took a new horse they bought just days ago from Tibet, which is grey but they name it Blue. Yellow likes Blue and follows him nicely. They are always together even when freely wandering on the grassland to feed themselves.

金銀雙寳(黃黃& 藍藍) - They are gold and silver to me 🙂

10天:Lo ManthangLuri最恐怖的路 / Day 10: The most dangerous road

LoDhee有段路只有一隻脚掌寬,整面山壁都是隨時滾動的小石子--就是那種你踩一脚,人跟脚一起隨著小石子向下滑的路,問題是下面是幾百公尺山谷,下去就算活著也上不來了。我自己走的話,用四肢爬都不敢過去,但是因爲這幾天培養出對黃黃的信任,加上巴布跟他的馬走在前面,眼不眨的就騎着黃黃過去,只可惜那時把相機放在背包裏。

走到一半,前面巴布傳來短短續續的話:“現在路比較好了。以前……我哥哥…..掉了下去……沒有上來……”。嗚呼哀哉,之後休息時趕緊問,不是哥哥們都好好的嗎?原來是一位哥哥的岳父的馬走這段路時,不慎摔了下去,就此告別這世界――還好他沒在我們走這路之前告訴我這故事,不然我極度懷疑我會有勇氣走,原來馬兒也不是那麽牢靠的。

話說回來,很能理解爲什麽有人不惜重金買馬。真的是把自己的身家性命全交給了坐騎,很多時候,山路險峻時,確實是信任馬比信任自己多。

There is one section of road with width of only one feet’s on a vertical slope of small sliding stones – actually various places along the road were blocked by stones sliding from higher places. If Babu asked me to walk, I definitely would have said no way. But he just went ahead with his horse. At that moment, I realized how much I trust Yellow – even more than I trust myself.

沒有真正險路的照片,反正就是比這陡至少20度,比這窄就是了~This is a normal path, the bad one is 20 degree steeper than this…

1112天:黃黃不把我放在眼裏 / Day 11-12: Yellow becomes lazy and uncontrollable

今天從DheeLo Ghegar,巴布沒走過這段路,加上我們想繞過水大的地方,我們兜了個圈子,3小時的路走了5個小時。我是又累又餓,黃黃不知道是真的累還是作怪,從巴布換馬後它就不甚合作,不是走的很慢,再不然就是不跟前馬去走奇怪的路上,昨天還有自己跑囬頭的記錄。今天更是不把我放在眼裏,我們迷路途中,沿路走走停停吃花吃草,還差點跑到人家田裏嚼青稞,我沒有鞭子,只能跟它比腕力,拉著馬繮不方便它低頭吃,我們後來折衷了些,它咬上一叢花草後往前邊走邊吃……所以我們有一段路走的巨慢。

12天,從Lo GhegarGami的短短路上,發現雖然沒有鞭子,用馬繮虛晃出聲響能够讓黃黃稍微聽話往前跑,只是不知道這伎倆能騙它多久。

Today we got a bit lost so it took us 5 hours to go from Dhee to Lo Ghegar. We passed a village where we wanted to ask for directions but apparently everyone left for Lo Ghegar already for the initiation. We just wondered in the fields and eventually found the way.

On the way, I was really tired and hungry, probably same for Yellow. He started stopping here and there to grab some grass/flowers to eat, which made our progress even slower. I didn’t have a whip so there was little I can do.

我急著去蓮師廟見仁波切,黃黃卻沿路吃了起來 / I wanted to rush to see the monastery built by Padmasambhava while Yellow was taking his time munching along the way

迷路時卻見到了一家子的鹿 / A family of deers came to greet us while we were lost 

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13天:9個小時,一天內回到Kagbeni / Day 13: 9 hours ride back to Kagbeni within one day

本來的計劃是從GhamiSamar,第二天再從SamarJomsom,因爲大家都說不是本地人,到Lo Manthang分三天走比較輕鬆。

但是帶我回Jomsom的人很厲害,他跟在黃黃後面打了幾次後,黃黃立馬知道不好唬弄他,所以走的很賣力。原來我和巴布之前對它太好了,它爬個山,走十步停一停,我們都任它自己調整氣息,今天發現原來它有能力一口氣爬上幾百公尺垂直的山坡。

另一匹馬少見的比黃黃還高大,名字就叫大大。大大走的巨快,所以黃黃即使賣力,還是通常跟不上,碰到下坡路,我就儘量下來自己走,讓它休息。

早上八九點磨磨蹭蹭的離開Ghami,中間只在Shangmochen停下喝了杯茶,到一點多就到Samar了,撞見了從Kagbeni來的室友爸爸(黃黃的主人),他有公事回去Jomsom一趟,所以我在Lo Gehgar時才能臨時在我室友那裏的空牀過了一晚,沒想到中飯時在漫漫長路上能再次碰到。

吃完中飯,我們想說多走一點路,就走到下一個村莊,到了那裏,又雄心大發的想直接趕到Kagbeni,住的比較好,而且聼室友爸爸說今天水比較小,過河容易些。就趕呀趕的,看到日落西山很著急,不過六點時終於看到Kag

渡河回去的路上,黃黃涉水都還好,只是從河水裏爬上馬道的地方很陡,大概一米五的高度,大大都沒法一次上去,黃黃一躍到土陘上後也跪了下來,四肢掙扎著,我想它戴著我的行李和我,一定太重了上不去,我又很怕它受傷,就跳下馬來,沒想到力量不够,跳不到旁邊,還是摔在土陘裏,眼看黃黃也墜下來,很怕它會踩到我,那肯定要進醫院了,還好,它後脚奮力一登時沒踩到我,自己終於爬了上去,我也被同行人拽起,他嚇壞了,一直問我有沒有受傷,我倒是比較擔心馬有沒有受傷。萬幸,人馬都毫髮無缺。

回到Kag,發現掉了一隻耳環,戴了一年半了,有點心疼。

The original plan was to go from Ghami to Samar, stay one night at Samar, then go to Jomsom. However, TL, who was in charge of brining me back to Jomsom, was very good at dealing with Yellow. He soon realized that Yellow was playing lazy so he stayed behind us in the beginning of the trip and gave Yellow a few whips. Ever since, Yellow was making a lot of effort to catch up with TL’s giant horse.

Though we left Ghami quite late in the morning, we reached Samar at about 1pm, running into Yellow’s owner on his way from Jomsom to Ghami. After having lunch, we decided to go to the next village for the night, and once we reached that village, we again set the goal to reach Kagbeni. So except for once we stopped for the horses to get some water, we went all the way to Kagbeni before the sunset.

When we crossed the water this time, I almost got myself into trouble again. The water was bigger than the time when we left. Yellow was doing ok passing  the water. The problem occurred when he needed to lifted himself off the water back to the track. The platform was about 1.5 meter high with an almost vertical tiny and winding track, as wide as his body. Even the giant horse before us didn’t make it with one jump. When Yellow tried, he slided on half way with his forelegs kneeled down. I was afraid that he might hurt himself.  Thinking that my luggage plus myself was too much a burden for him, I decided to jump off him. Not skilled enough, I didn’t land at the side, but dropped back to the pit-like track while Yellow kept sliding. Fortunately, his final last kick helping him up the platform missed me. Otherwise, I don’t think any part of my body can sustain his kick.

When we were in Kag, I realized that one earring was missing. Must have lost it somewhere along the way. A bit sad because I had had that pair on for over a year now.

大大與黃黃走了一天後喝水 / Giant & Yellow having water after one full day of walk

14天:車道難行 / Day 14: Bidding farewell to Yellow

今天只是從KagbeniJomsom,仁波切他們之前騎馬只要半個小時,我想我一個小時差不多,路也好走,很掉以輕心的上路了。一開始看到很多外國徒步游客還覺得很好玩,後來發現其實這路有跟之前不同的挑戰。

首先,因爲這段路上人多,所以第一次有“錯車“的經驗。在窄道上要彼此先把馬停下,找到一處能容二馬過的地方再交會,但是馬兒有時過去了,後面人的腿或行李還會打架,這時馬兒不會知道,還是各走各的硬是往前走,外側那個人馬就很危險。

接著,因爲這是通車路段,時不時會有吉普車過去。第一次還好,領路人把大大停在路外側,我把黃黃停在大大後面,車子過去了;第二次,車子過去時,黃黃突然抓狂,轉身想跟著車子跑。之後,每當有車子來,我們都會示意車子慢下來,並且自己儘量走到遠離車子的路上。現代都市裏人車分道,幕斯坦以後通車的話可能需要馬、車分道。

走了一個小時回到Jomsom,終於結束我的騎馬遊。很捨不得黃黃。

This is a very short trip: from Kagbeni to Jomsom. By car or riding fast, it only takes half an hour. For me it took more than an hour.

The road condition is superb compared to what I had been through. However, there was so much traffic on this route, which means we sometimes had horses from different directions on a road which was only spacious enough for one horse to pass at a time. Plus, there were jeeps coming and going on the main part of the road and Yellow wasn’t all that stable when getting near a motor vehicle. Once he literally wanted to chase after a jeep as if he wanted to bite the car.

They are building a  road from Kagbeni to Lo Manthang. When the road is finished, it’s likely going to be challenge for the horses as they can’t run freely on the road anymore.

So this ends all my days with Mustang horses. They are such beautiful beings.

Kagbeni附近的河段/ Water near Kagbeni (Kali Gandaki River)

我與幕斯坦的馬兒Horse Riding in Mustang, Nepal(I)

幕斯坦只有機場JomsomKagbeniMuktinath 通車,其他地方,除了靠自己的兩條腿外,只有三個選擇:直升機、拖拉機、騎馬。直升機要包機,價格不菲;拖拉機只有春天水小時能通,路綫也有限;所以我終於有機會學習騎馬。
I was very excited to have the chance to learn horse riding since it’s the only way to tour around especially Upper Mustang, apart from trekking by feet.

12天:牽著走 / Day 1-2: horse on a rope

1次是從KagbeniTingri,半個小時的寬廣河床路程,弟兄們不放心,有人牽著走,到目的地時發現比走山路過來的弟兄們還慢,窘~

回程時,硬是跟牽馬的小兄弟說不用牽了。有人牽著前面一位老人家的馬走,我的馬很乖,乖乖的跟在後面,只有從河床爬上吊橋的70度爬坡嚇了我一跳。

  

2次從JharkotDzong,也是短短的過河行程,不過是直下直上的過河谷,路也都是林間小路。爲了避免丟人獻眼,脫離大隊人馬,跟先去準備煮飯的兩位兄弟先走,有個當地人牽馬,我只要練習在上上下下的馬背上坐穩就好,也還行,只是羡慕同行的兩位弟兄可以邊騎馬邊騰出兩隻手來照相。

The first two times were not exactly horse riding. There was always someone holding my horse so all I needed to do is to sit properly on the horse. And the way we walked was more slowly than people simply walking on their feet, so it felt more like I was torturing the poor horse.

3天:自己騎着短短的路到Muktinath / Day 3: A short trip to Muktinath

DzongMuktinath的路上終於算是好好騎了馬,也不太記得怎麽一回事,好像還挺順利的。有大批人馬來接人,有人叫我上馬,我就上馬,叫我下馬,我就下馬,馬跟著大家走,我還能騰出一隻手來照相,唯一的問題是我老是記不得自己的馬是哪匹,一休息後,就得四處張望,尋找馬兒。

Finally I managed to ride a horse by myself from Dzong to Muktinath. It must have been a very cooperative horse so I had a pretty smooth ride and was even able to take some good shots on the horseback. The only problem was I can’t recognize my horse so every time we stopped somewhere, it’d take me a while to find my horse.

我們停在Muktinath時馬休息的地方/ Where we parked the horses at Muktinath

45天:跟脾氣古怪的馬兒挑戰上幕斯坦 / Day 4-5: Entering Upper Mustang with horses with strong characters

Kagbeni到上幕斯坦的Samar的那一天,是計劃裏最長的一段路,至少6個小時,翻山越嶺。

出發前把行李托去給驢隊運送時,管驢子的人說電腦不能運, 會顛壞掉,我只得背著我45升的背包騎馬。

 

領頭的驢子被打扮的很漂亮/ Lead donkeys in full decoration

果然技術不行,背包裏的電腦加上書很重,坐在馬上完全不能平衡。還好我那匹小馬走的很慢,我硬撐在馬上,落在隊伍最後面,就在心裏想著這樣下去不行時,巡管馬隊的人像菩薩一般出現了,他說妳這樣會摔下去的,就把背包拿走,交給一個少年背。藏民真好,這個男孩子一聲不吭的幫我背了一天的包。

由於小馬走的慢,我脫離背包的夢魘後,趕緊跟在攝影師兄弟的後面,讓馬跟著他的馬走。走沒多久就過河了。

這馬也奇怪,之前跟的好好的,到了河裏,前面兩匹馬直直過河了,它卻向右拐。我想可能是它比較小隻,要找淺的地方走。不過,到了河中央,水把我右邊小腿一半都淹掉了,這時看到攝影兄弟在岸邊跟我比劃著,心裏還不知道怕,只想著怎麽不幫我照張英勇過河的相片。

看著岸上兩人的怪表情,低頭仔細看看,才發現這小馬很奮力的往前走,不過我們是一點都沒動――水實在太大了。

我這才拉著繮繩讓馬向左轉,走前人之路,也就順利過去了。

上岸後,攝影師說他嚇壞了,另一人說小馬已經驚慌到不斷搖頭嘶鳴。到下午,我的室友問我是不是今天過河時差點落水,後來又有人問了兩句,想來這事不知怎麽傳的很誇張了。

I’ve got this small brown horse to take me on the supposedly longest journey: 6+ hours from Kagbeni to Samar.

It was actually a quite good horse. It tended to follow other horses and often reluctant to talk.

However, since the donkey man refused to ship my laptop with other luggage, I had a horrible time trying to balance myself with my heavy backpack initially. The horse walked more and more slowly while I was struggling with the weight on the back… until we were at the very end of the big group. For a moment I did think we’d never make it.

Fortunately someone in charge of the group patrolling back and forth saw my situation and kindly handed my bag to a young local boy in the group.

After that, all I need to worry is how to make my small horse move without having a whip.

I was doing ok by making the horse following the video cameraman in the front of the group…until we had to cross the river. Somehow the small brown horse didn’t follow the predecessors’ route in the river. I was thinking maybe he’s smaller so he needs to find a shallower place. It turned out that he went deeper and deeper  until we were stuck in the middle of the water – he kept walking against the water but we didn’t move an inch.

Finally I managed to make him turn back to the appropriate route and get across the water – with my right shoe and half of the jean completely wet. What is very embarrassing is that, later that day, my roommate and other people asked me whether it’s true that I almost fell in the water today…the story must have spread out with some exaggeration.

 

帶我過河的攝影師兄弟 / The cameraman who led me through the river

 

小棕馬後來很爭氣地跟着領頭的這個旗手 / My little brown horse was very cooperative to keep up with this lead person 

5天繼續趕路到Ghiling。本來想說能騎著昨天的小棕馬是最好了,它大概知道我什麽時候想快想慢,但是發現小馬是Samar去接大隊人馬的馬,今天換成Ghiling的馬來,所以我換騎一匹小白馬。

上馬沒兩分鍾就發現這小白馬大概是A型性格,它不喜歡跟在別的馬後面,不停的想超車,而且都是從危險的外綫向前擠――山路上外綫的意思就是懸崖邊,我們體積又不大,前馬一扭我們可能就下去了。

Ghiling的人見我管不動這匹馬,就叫我換馬。我感激涕零的換上一匹小灰馬,發現更糟!小灰馬不知怎麽地,跟小白馬一樣拔腿狂奔,當地人騎馬趕來拉上繮繩都止不住,更糟的是墊子不知怎麽舖的,我抓不到馬鞍的前緣,人一直往前滑,只差沒騎到馬脖子上了!

强力要求換囬我的小白馬,也算是跟小白馬一路折騰到Ghiling

到了城門,雖然勉力把小白馬拉在重要人物後面(我們總不能比貴客先進城,我又不敢自己跳下小白馬),但是小白馬不改好競爭的本性,硬是不要落在別的馬後面,在我們拉扯之中,就從門外的縫隙篡進去。

唯一的問題是門外一排樹,小馬硬是從樹下跑過,害我的左半身掃過數棵樹的枝枒,打斷一個樹枝,晚上發現左臂一片淤青。

After spending so much time with that little brown horse, I was hoping to continue the journey with him as we somehow understood each other in the latter part of the trip. Unfortunately, he had to stay in Samar so I switched to another horse. 

This time I got a small white horse, with opposite characteristics. Yesterday’s one was always reluctant to walk; today’s must have Type A personality – she never followed any other horses for more than 30 seconds, then she wanted to overtake others – from dangerous external side.

I was quite worried. If the horses in front of us pushed back more fiercely, both of us would end up down in the cliff…

So the local people asked me to switch to a gray horse.

It turned out to be even worse. The grey horse also ran like crazy trying to catch up the group. People around us can’t stop him and I can’t get a hold of the saddle because of the way they stacked up the cushions on it. When he finally slowed down so that I can request to switch back, I was literally riding on this grey horse’s neck.

So I continued the journey by wrestling with the little white restless horse. It went ok until we arrived at Ghiling. 

 

不聽話的小白馬 / The deceivingly nice little white horse

I wanted her to stay behind the main group and enter the gate after the others, but she wasn’t all that cooperative – probably more excited than usual when seeing the big crowd gathering. In the end, she didn’t go through the gate as I wished, but rather, not compromising completely, she dragged me through a row of trees outside the gate, with my body hitting those branches badly. The bruise all over my left arm marked the end of my 5th day of horse riding.      

路太陡或下坡時就下來用走的 / We walked when it’s too steep